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The Chronica Maiora of Isidore of Seville

An introduction and translation
Sam KOON et Jamie WOOD

Résumés

Isidore of Seville’s Chronica Maiora was written in two redactions in early seventh century and reveals a great deal about the political, religious and intellectual history of late antique and early medieval Spain. a comparative analysis of the different versions demonstrates the author in action, responding to a range of contemporary stimuli. On a series of levels, the changing form and contents of the chronicle can be mapped against a rapidly changing religious and political background to provide valuable historical data and insights into the working methods and intellectual world of the most important author of early medieval Spain. This article offers a brief introduction to the text and its context of production before presenting an English translation of the two redactions of the text.

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Texte intégral

1Although it has frequently been dismissed as an insignificant work, an investigation of Isidore of Seville’s Chronica Maiora reveals a great deal about the political, religious and intellectual history of late antique and early medieval Spain. The work is in two redactions and a comparative analysis of the different versions demonstrates the author in action, responding to a range of contemporary stimuli. Further insights into how Isidore worked when conceiving and constructing the text can be gained by observing the complex relationship between the chronicle and his broader thought-world. Isidore wrote about history and chronography in some detail elsewhere in his corpus – it is thus profitable to examine the interaction between theory and practice. Fortunately, the vast majority of the sources of the chronicle remain extant and it is therefore possible to compare the large amount of information which Isidore had at his disposal with the sparse text which he produced and thus to posit reasons for such conscious selection and reselection across two redactions. Finally, as one of the most prolific and influential writers of the early middle ages, the positions which Isidore took on a whole range of issues can be related to what he has to say on similar topics elsewhere. On a series of levels, the changing form and contents of the chronicle can be mapped against a rapidly changing religious and political background to provide valuable historical data and insights into the working methods and intellectual world of the most important author of the early medieval period in Spain.

2In what follows, we offer a brief introduction to the text and its context of production before presenting an English translation of the two redactions of the text. The translation is based on the edition of José Carlos Martín (2003). A translation of the Chronica Minora, the epitome of the greater chronicle that Isidore included in his Etymologies,can be found the recently published Cambridge University Press translation of the Etymologies (Barney et al., 2006).

The redactions

3In 2003, José Carlos Martín rendered much previous scholarship on the Chronica in serious need of revision by definitively establishing, that there were two redactions of the Chronica Maiora. Although scholars had long ago recognised that there were two different versions of the text, there was considerable uncertainty over the relationship between those versions. For example, Mommsen, who edited the work for the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, did not think that there were two Isidorian versions of the text; he believed that neither of the two redactions had arrived at us as they left the pen of Isidore, but had been modified by copyists and that the authentic text was therefore unrecoverable (Mommsen, ed., 1894 : 420-423; Váquez de Parga, 1961 : 102-103). Nonetheless, there were dissenting voices. In 2000 Jacques Fontaine, the great French scholar, noted the following :

Les datations finales montrent clairement l’existence de deux versions de la Chronique isidorienne : l’une désigne la cinquième année de l’empereur Héraclius et la quatrième du roi Sisebut, soit l’année 616, l’autre la dix-huitième année de l’empereur Maurice et la septième du roi Suinthila, soit, treize ans plus tard, l’année 629. En fait, la comparaison de ces deux versions montre que la version longue n’est qu’un allongement de la version courte (Fontaine, 2000 : 224; see also 220).

4Through a detailed analysis of the surviving manuscripts, José Carlos Martín was able to confirm Fontaine’s suggestion, although his dating for the writing of the two redactions of the text differed slightly from those of Fontaine. The manuscripts suggested that the first redaction was written under King Sisebut in 615/616 and the second version under King Swinthila in 626. In constructing the text Isidore did not simply continue the works of Eusebius-Jerome and their continuators; he summarised and augmented their works. A process of selection and exclusion was therefore carried out from the very inception of the project. The second redaction is longer than the first, with numerous additions, and some suppressions from and corrections to the earlier version (Martín, 2002 : 161-162; Martín, 2005; Codoñer, Martín & Adelaida Andrés, 2005 : 362-370). Martín’s work has allowed the negative judgements of previous commentators to be overturned and revealed that Isidore was seeking to comment actively on and influence contemporary affairs through altering his accounts of universal history.

5It seems that Isidore used the first redaction of the greater Chronicle as a base from which he elaborated the second redaction. At some point near to the end of this process he decided to include an epitome of the second redaction of the greater Chronicle – the Chronica Minora – in the Etymologiae. Hence, the majority of the chapters in the Chronica Minora are most closely related to the second redaction of the Chronica Maiora.

The sources

6The Christian chronographic tradition within which Isidore wrote dictated both the form and content of the work. It determined that Isidore discuss history far back into the Old Testament past and attempt to draw as many peoples as possible to the Christian message. However, Isidore was willing to innovate to meet contemporary objectives. For example, he implanted the theory of the six ages of the world – taken from Augustine’s City of God – into the second redaction of the textand into the Chronica Minora.

7Partly as a consequence of the received image of Isidore as an unreflective regurgitator of ancient learning, his chronographic writings have received little attention from scholars, frequently being dismissed as ‘scissors and paste’ compositions derived largely from second-hand material and offering a deficient account of world history (Collins, 1994 : 354). This culminated in the 1990s, in the damning assessment of Galán Sánchez, who judged that Isidore’s Chronicle contributed virtually nothing to historiography in terms of its form, content, or ideological vision (Galán Sánchez, 1994).

8A more balanced examination of the text, its sources and their relationship to the contemporary milieu reveals that in constructing his chronicles Isidore did not simply continue the works of Eusebius-Jerome and their continuators; he summarised and augmented their works. He abandoned the multi-column format of Eusebius and engaged in what seems to have been an intense process of weeding. In writing the second redaction of the Chronica Maiora Isidore revisited the chronicles of Eusebius-Jerome and their continuators not only for additional source material, but also in order to revise his chronology. In making these additions he sought to focus on particular issues and not simply to ‘spray’ random new entries throughout the work. For example, he selected material to add a layer of geographical precision that had been absent from the first redaction of the chronicle – so emphasising where people lived or where events occurred.

9After previous Christian chronicles, the fourth-century epitomes and breviaries of Roman history were the most significant sources for Isidore’s Chronicle. They seem to have played a central part in determining the form and content of the later part of the work. The breviariesof the pagan Eutropius and Festus were particularly important (Rohrbacher, 2002; Barnes, 1976). At first sight this might seem strange, for Isidore had a range of Christian histories, for example that of Paulus Orosius, at his disposal and these might seem to have been a safer option. However, because he wanted to focus upon Roman interactions with Persia as part of a wider effort to demonstrate that God had abandoned the contemporary Romans and made use of the Persians as a divine scourge, Isidore had to deepen his coverage of Roman-Persian interaction in the past (Wood, 2005). Eutropius and Festus were far more useful in pursuing that aim, since they had been specifically written to encourage Roman aggression against Persia under the Emperor Valens (ruled 364-378). Isidore’s treatment of the pagan epitomisers was to use them as sources of information to illustrate and support particular of his polemical imperatives. They were preferred to Christian historians simply because they were more useful. The fact that their authors were pagan had no impact upon that choice.

10This brief survey of the use to which Isidore put his sources has attempted to demonstrate that Isidore was active and reflective in his use of a range of late antique historical and chronographic sources when writing the Chronica Maiora. This active engagement is indicative of Isidore’s involvement in and desire to influence contemporary political and religious developments.

11Context and contents

12Four separate sixth and early seventh century events can be related to Isidore’s alteration of his account of history in the period between the production of the first and second redaction of the Chronica Maiora. Firstly, in the mid-550s, as part of his efforts to reconquer the Western Mediterranean for the Eastern Roman Empire, Justinian ordered his troops to invade the Iberian Peninsula. Although the intervention in Spain only resulted in the conquest of a relatively small portion of south-eastern Spain, the fact that the East Romans managed to maintain their presence until the mid-620s remained a constant irritant to the Visigoths and consequently their apologists (Wood, forthcoming). The Visigoths finally managed to capture the last Roman holdings in Spain in the mid-620s, shortly before the production of the second redactions of both the History of the Goths and the Chronicle. Isidore’s negative portrayal of the Roman Empire was therefore at least partly the result of the physical threat that they had posed to the Visigoths in Spain, while the final expulsion of their forces helps to explain why the text was produced anew in the 620s.

13Secondly, Isidore wrote in the aftermath of the conversion of the Visigoths from Arianism to Catholicism in 589. As a close associate of King Sisebut, the ruler at the time at which the first redaction of the Chronica Maiora was written, and the primary intellectual apologist for the monarch and his successors, Isidore had a strong motivation to present a more orthodox and united history of the Visigoths than was actually the case (Wood, 2005). There were personal elements too, for Isidore’s elder brother and predecessor as Bishop of Seville, Leander, had been closely involved in the conversion and the tumultuous events leading up to it (Domínguez del Val, 1981). Isidore therefore ignored or underplayed episodes of heresy and disunity in the Visigothic past because such events potentially undermined Visigothic claims to orthodoxy and legitimacy in opposition to the Roman Empire.

14The third context is religious. The Roman invasion of the mid-sixth century seems to have been followed by the movement of eastern religious beliefs and ecclesiastical personnel into the Roman province. Isidore, who saw adherents of such beliefs as heretics, gave far greater coverage to heretics whom he termed the Acephali (« headless ones ») in the second redaction of the Chronica Maiora than the first. The inspiration for Isidore’s increased interest in this heresy came from his own personal contact with a leader of the heresy in Spain. The records of the Second Council of Seville (619), over which Isidore presided, devote a great deal of attention to refuting the errors of Gregory, a bishop of the Acephali (MacCoull, 1998). Such connections probably resulted from the gradual reconquest of the Roman province by the Visigoths, which would have led to conflicts as the ecclesiastical hierarchy of the Visigothic kingdom reintegrated the population of the conquered territory into their organisational structures.

15Finally, the change in ruler between the production of the first and second redaction of the Chronicle – with Swinthila replacing Sisebut’s short-ruling son – was a significant driving force behind the writing of the second version. It also had an impact upon the contents of the work, since Isidore alters the titles which he gives to the two rulers (and some of the past rulers he describes) in the second redaction in order to undermine Sisebut and to emphasise the achievements of Swinthila. Swinthila’s most significant accomplishment was the final expulsion of the Eastern Roman Empire from Spain, further explaining why Isidore emphasised both the significance of the event and the historical threat which the Romans had posed to the Visigoths. This summary of the Chronica Maiora and its various contexts of production has demonstrated the conscious choices which Isidore made when writing the text and suggested that this is indicative of his close implication in contemporary religious and political currents.

Isidore’s other historical writings

16The profound interaction between tradition, represented by the sources which were at Isidore’s disposal, the historical situation in which he found himself, and the various ways by which this played itself out in the Chronica Maiora can be further illustrated by examining the relationship between the text and his other writings about history. Isidore’s De viris illustribus provides an interesting comparison to the Chronica because by analysing the text we can demonstrate how Isidore appropriated a tradition established by his predecessors and how his account of the past was tempered by contemporary concerns.

De viris illustribus

17The De viris illustribus was written sometime between 615 and 618. It consisted of 33 chapters. It continued the earlier bio-bibliographic catalogues of Jerome and Gennadius, which defined famous men in terms of their literary outputs while creating an image of specific authors and writings as canonical (Rouse & Rouse, 1986; Vessey, 1994, 1996, 2002). Isidore reproduced these imperatives, but additionally tried to generate an image of a Spanish episcopal elite that was both orthodox and produced a significant literary output. This was intended to remedy the absence of Spanish churchmen from the works of his predecessors in the tradition. Aside from the emphasis upon the Spanish origins of his famous men, Isidore was especially interested to note the role of bishops in the government of the church. Nearly 75 per cent of the entries in Isidore’s De viris illustribus concern bishops, while bishops are often referred to in chapters dedicated to non-episcopal figures : 25 out of 33 chapters are about bishops, while in total 32 bishops are mentioned. This matches the approach taken in the Chronica, where the episcopacy predominates, especially in terms of their role in combating heresy.

18The De viris illustribus also mimics the positive attitude of the Chronica towards the Visigoths and its hostility towards other powers. It presents the Emperors Constantine, Arcadius, Justinian, and Maurice as acting illegitimately and is also opposed to the kingdoms that emerged after the ‘fall’ of the Western Roman Empire. For example, both imperial and regnal dates are always present when Isidore refers to a Vandal or Suevic ruler; only in the cases of the Visigoths do regnal datings stand alone, without accompanying imperial dates. Despite the significant similarities between the Chronica and the De viris illustribus, the overall focus of the De viris illustribus is far more particularist, being focussed upon Spain above all other former provinces of the Roman Empire. Isidore’s De viris illustribus was thus not an antiquarian intellectual exercise but the wholesale adoption of an earlier tradition for contemporary purposes : namely to create an illustrious past for a Spanish Catholic church that had not, in fact, been very illustrious at all. This is exactly the sort of approach which underpins the Chronica, a text which has traditionally been seen as passively inheriting an established tradition, but which in reality was extremely innovative in terms of its reuse of both the chronicle genre and the sources which Isidore had at his disposal.

History of the Goths

19The History of the Goths, like the Chronica Maiora, was written in two redactions. The shorter redaction ends with the death of King Sisebut (621), the longer in the middle of Swinthila’s reign (625). It is generally accepted that the longer redaction is an expanded version of the shorter version (Rodríguez Alonso, ed., 1975 : 26-49; Martín, 2004; Codoñer, Martín & Adelaida Andrés, 2005). It is especially interesting to examine the History of the Goths since it falls under the definition of ‘history’ that Isidore outlines in the Etymologies (I. 41-44), the same place at which he talks about other historical genres, such as annals.

20Isidore is unique among the historians of the barbarians of the early middle ages because he wrote the history of three separate peoples : the Visigoths, the Vandals, and the Sueves. Like Gregory of Tours Decem libri historiarum, which is commonly known as the Historia Francorum because its later sections focus on the history of the Franks, the text commonly known as the Historia Gothorum was probably not known as such when it was first written (Goffart, 1987). In Braulio’s Renotatio librorum domini Isidori it is described as ‘A single book on the origin of the Goths and the kingdom of the Sueves and the Vandals’ (Braulio, Renotatio, l. 39-41).

21In terms of its ideological slant, the History of the Goths has often been interpreted as legitimating the Visigothic monarchy in opposition to external enemies (Hillgarth (1970), 295-299; Reydellet (1981), 524-554). Therefore, Isidore’s text narrates the histories of the Vandals and Sueves in such a way as to present them negatively in comparison to the Visigoths. For example, the histories of the Vandals and the Sueves are dated according to the Spanish aera system alone, whereas the section that charts Visigothic history has aera and imperial dating side by side. The dating system is therefore used to remove legitimacy from the other kingdoms, which are not placed on the same level as the Visigoths (and the empire) and to subsume their history within a Spanish (= Visigothic?) chronological system.

22The numerous alterations between the two versions of the History of the Goths furtherreveal changing political ideologies. The preface to the second redaction of the History of the Goths – known as the Laus Spaniae – extols Spain as a rich and fertile country and praises the Visigothic hold on it. In the main text of the History of the Goths the Visigoths first become involved in Spain under Roman direction, although they later act independently. By highlighting cooperation and the fact that treaties were entered into between Visigoths and Romans, Isidore demonstrates that the Visigoths have every legal right to be on former imperial territory, while his emphasis on Visigothic opposition to and military superiority over other powers reinforces the point that the Visigoths held Spain by right of conquest (Furtado, 2006 : 504).

23The History of the Goths also celebrated Visigothic victories over the eastern Roman forces in southern Spain. In the second redaction Visigothic actions against the empire are mentioned in eight of the twelve reigns from Theudis to Swinthila (mid sixth-century to 625). There are virtually no differences between the first and second redactions of the History of the Goths on this issue : Isidore saw the portrayal of the Visigothic expulsion of the Romans as fundamental to his story of the Visigothic past. The final chapters of the History of the Goths embody all these features, focusing on the military skills of the Visigothic soldiery, the definition of the Visigoths over and above other peoples, in competition with Rome, and as rightful possessors of Spain (Isidore, History of the Goths, second redaction, 68-70). The emphases of the History of the Goths are therefore largely complementary to those of the Chronica Maiora. Both works undermine the other successor kingdoms in comparison to the Visigothic monarchy and emphasise Visigothic potency in the military sphere in opposition to all other powers, while the Chconica Maiora discredits the Romans by demonstrating their illegitimacy in religious and secular matters over a longer period of time.

24It is therefore most productive to envisage Isidore’s historical works as occupying a key place at one end of a continuum. The History of the Goths was closely related to the Chronica Maiora and the De viris illustribus. The Chronica Maiora was intimately connected to the Chronica Minora (the epitome of the Chronica contained within the Etymologies) and a little less closely to the rest of the Etymologiae and the De viris illustribus. While the De viris illustribus was intended to place famous orthodox Spaniards at the centre of its account of the past, the Chronica Maiora tried to position the Visigoths at the culmination of universal Catholic history and in legitimate possession of Spain, and the History of the Goths praised the orthodox Visigoths and their kings and demonstrated that they held Spain by right of both conquest and legitimate agreement. The Chronica Maiora and the History of the Goths were intimately connected and highly complementary since both sought to praise the Visigoths and to discredit their east Roman opponents. They used different tactics to accomplish this. The History of the Goths emphasised the military power of the Visigoths over that of the Romans, while the Chronica Maiora tried to discredit the Romans by presenting them as politically and religiously illegitimate. However, the shorter time span of the History of the Goths meant that if Isidore wanted to present the Visigoths as a true chosen people, he needed to find an alternative conduit for this message. This is where the Chronica Maiora proved useful. It enabled Isidore to connect the Visigoths into the course of universal history by placing their Scythian ancestors (a relationship that is established in both the History of the Goths, first redaction, 1; second redaction, 66; and the Etymologies, IX.2.27) at the start of history and presenting the Visigoths as the victors over the Romans at the culmination of the text. It is unsurprising that the Visigoths and Spain are largely absent from the Chronica Minora, since Isidore had already exalted them to varying degrees in the Chronica Maiora, the History of the Goths and the De viris illustribus. The threefold emphasis upon Spain, the Visigoths and the Catholic faith replicates that found in the three panegyrics produced on these same subjects by Isidore and his brother, Leander : Homilia de triumpho ecclesiae ob conversionem Gothorum; De laude Spaniae; and De laude Gothorum.

Note on the translation

25What follows is an English translation of Martín’s 2003 edition of the Chronica Maiora. Where there are only minor changes between the two redactions of the text which do not alter the sense of the Latin we have not translated them differently. We have adopted the chapterisation of the Martín edition.

Translation of the two redactions of the Chronica Maiora

  • 1  Julius Africanus, Christian historian of the early third century AD.
  • 2  That is, the Christians.
  • 3  Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor (161-180 AD).
  • 4  Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea and Christian chronicler (c. 260-340 AD).
  • 5  Jerome, Christian chronicler (345-419 AD).
  • 6  The Chronicle of Eusebius is actually composed of two separate texts : the chronography, giving a (...)
  • 7  Victor, Bishop of Tunnuna and Christian chronicler (d. c. 570 AD).
  • 8  Justin II, Roman Emperor (565-578 AD).
  • 9  Heraclius, Roman Emperor (610-641 AD).
  • 10  Sisebut, King of the Visigoths (612-621 AD).
  • 11  Swinthila, King of the Visigoths (621-631 AD).
  • 12  Isidore was the first writer to insert the six ages of the world into a chronicle, Vázquez de Parg (...)
  • 13  Jospehus, Jewish Antiquities,1.2.3.
  • 14  Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 1.3.5.
  • 15  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, V.i.1; XV.ii.27.
  • 16  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, IX.ii.76.
  • 17  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, V.i.1.
  • 18  Othniel, Judge of Israel. From this point forward Isidore has access to a more straightforward chr (...)
  • 19  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, I.iii.6.
  • 20  Ehud, Judge of Israel.
  • 21  Deborah, Judge of Israel.
  • 22  Gideon, Judge of Israel.
  • 23  Abimelech, Judge of Israel.
  • 24  Tola, Judge of Isreal.
  • 25  Jair, Judge of Israel.
  • 26  Jephthah, Judge of Israel.
  • 27  Ibzan, Judge of Israel.
  • 28  Abdon, Judge of Israel.
  • 29  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, I.iv.1.
  • 30  Samson, Judge of Israel.
  • 31  Eli, Judge of Israel.
  • 32  Samuel, last of the Judges of Israel. Saul, King of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah (c. 102 (...)
  • 33  David, King of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah (c. 1010-965).
  • 34  Cf. chapter 134a of the second redaction, where Isidore again refers to the foundation of Carthage (...)
  • 35  Solomon, King of the United Kingdom of Isreal and Judah (c. 967-927).
  • 36  Rehoboam, King of Judah (926-910). From this point onwards Isidore constructs his chronicle on the (...)
  • 37  Abijam, King of Judah (910-908).
  • 38  Asa, King of Judah (908-868).
  • 39  Jehoshapat, King of Judah (868-847).
  • 40  Jehoram, King of Judah (847-845).
  • 41  Ahaziah, King of Judah (845),
  • 42  Athaliah, Queen of Judah (845-840).
  • 43  Jehoash, King of Judah (840-801).
  • 44  Amaziah, King of Judah (801-773).
  • 45  Cf. chapter 109 (both redactions), where Isidore refers with more certainty to the foundation of C (...)
  • 46  Uzziah, King of Judah (787-736).
  • 47  Cf. chapter 87 (both redactions), where Isidore refers to Hercules instituting the Olympics themse (...)
  • 48  Jotham, King of Judah (756-741).
  • 49  Ahaz, King of Judah (741-725).
  • 50  Hezekiah, King of Judah (725-697).
  • 51  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, IX.iv.8.
  • 52  Manasseh, King of Judah (696-642).
  • 53  Amon, King of Judah (641-640).
  • 54  Josiah, King of Judah (639-609).
  • 55  Jehoiakim, King of Judah (608-598).
  • 56  Zedekiah, King of Judah (597-587).
  • 57  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, V.i.2.
  • 58  The seventy year of the Jewish captivity (chapter 167) explain the gap in time between Zedekiah an (...)
  • 59  Darius I the Great, King of Persia (521-486). From this point until Alexander the Great (chapter 1 (...)
  • 60  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, IX.iii.6.
  • 61  Xerxes I, King of Persia (486-465).
  • 62  Artaxerxes I Longimanus, King of Persia (465-424).
  • 63  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, I.xlii.2; VI.i.3.
  • 64  Darius II Nothus, King of Persia (424-405).
  • 65  Artaxerxes II Mnemon, King of Persia (405-359).
  • 66  Artaxerxes III Ochus, King of Persia (359-338).
  • 67  Artaxerxes IV Arses, King of Persia (338-336).
  • 68  Darius III, King of Persia (336-331).
  • 69  Alexander the Great, King of Macedon (336-323). The death of Alexander in 323 began the Hellenisti (...)
  • 70  Ptolemy I Soter, King of Egypt (323-283).
  • 71  Ptolemy II Philedelphus, King of Egypt (283-246).
  • 72  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VI.iv.1.
  • 73  Ptolemy III Evergetes, King of Egypt (246-221).
  • 74  Ptolemy IV Philopator, King of Egypt (221-204).
  • 75  Ptolemy V Epiphanes, King of Egypt (204-180).
  • 76  Ptolemy VI Philometor, King of Egypt (180-145).
  • 77  Ptolemy VIII Evergetes II, King of Egypt (145-116)
  • 78  Ptolemy IX Soter II, King of Egypt (first and second of three reigns, 116-110 and 109-107).
  • 79  Ptolemy X Alexander, King of Egypt (110-109 and 107-88).
  • 80  Ptolemy IX Soter II, King of Egypt (third of three reigns, 88-81).
  • 81  Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes), King of Egypt (80-51).
  • 82  Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt (51-30).
  • 83  Caesar was effectively sole ruler after the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 until his assassination in 4 (...)
  • 84  From this point onwards Isidore constructs his chronicle around the reigns of the Roman Emperors.
  • 85  Augustus, Roman Emperor (31BC-AD14).
  • 86  Tiberius, Roman Emperor (14-37).
  • 87  Gaius, Roman Emperor (37-41).
  • 88  Claudius, Roman Emperor (41-54).
  • 89  Simon Magus was often regarded by early Christians as the first heretic.
  • 90  Nero, Roman Emperor (54-68). Isidore does not record the three short reigns between Nero and Vespa (...)
  • 91  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from XIIII to XIII years. His source for (...)
  • 92  Vespasian, Roman Emperor (69-79).
  • 93  Titus, Roman Emperor (79-81).
  • 94  Domitian, Roman Emperor (81-96).
  • 95  Nerva, Roman Emperor (96-98).
  • 96  Trajan, Roman Emperor (98-117).
  • 97  Hadrian, Roman Emperor (117-138).
  • 98  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.4.
  • 99  Antoninus Pius, Roman Emperor (138-161).
  • 100  This is Marcus Aurelius.
  • 101  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.11 ; VIII.v.21.
  • 102  Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor (161-180).
  • 103  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.27; VIII.v.25.
  • 104  Commodus, Roman Emperor (176-192, co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius 176-180).
  • 105  Pertinax, Roman Emperor (193).
  • 106  Septimius Severus, Roman Emperor (193-211).
  • 107  Caracalla, Roman Emperor (198-217, co-emperor with Septimius Severus 198-211).
  • 108  Macrinus, Roman Emperor (217-218).
  • 109  Heliogabalus, Roman Emperor (218-222).
  • 110  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from III to IIII years. His source Eusebi (...)
  • 111  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.42.
  • 112  Alexander Severus, Roman Emperor (222-235).
  • 113  Maximinus, Roman Emperor (235-238).
  • 114  Gordian III, Roman Emperor (238-244).
  • 115  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from VII to VI years. His source Eusebius (...)
  • 116  Philip, Roman Emperor (244-249).
  • 117  At chapter 330 (both redactions) Isidore states that Constantine was the first emperor to be made (...)
  • 118  Decius, Roman Emperor (249-251).
  • 119  Trebonianus Gallus, Roman Emperor (251-253); Volusianus, Roman Emperor (251-253).
  • 120  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.34.
  • 121  Valerian, Roman Emperor (253-260); Galienus, Roman Emperor (253-268).
  • 122  Claudius II, Roman Emperor (268-270).
  • 123  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.29.
  • 124  Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270-275).
  • 125  Tacitus, Roman Emperor (275-276).
  • 126  Probus, Roman Emperor (276-282).
  • 127  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.31.
  • 128  Carus, Roman Emperor (282-283); Carinus, Roman Emperor (283-285); Numerianus (283-284).
  • 129  Diocletian, Roman Emperor (284-305); Maximian, Roman Emperor (286-305 and 307-308).
  • 130  Galerius, Roman Emperor (305-311).
  • 131  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from II to III years, perhaps to even out (...)
  • 132  Constantine I, Roman Emperor (306-337).
  • 133  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from XXX to XXXI years. His source Eusebi (...)
  • 134  Cf. chapter 303, where Isidore states that the Emperor Philip was the first to believe in Christ.
  • 135  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.43.
  • 136  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.51.
  • 137  Constantius II, Roman Emperor (337-361); Constans, Roman Emperor (337-350).
  • 138  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.32; VIII.v.44.
  • 139  Julian, Roman Emperor (361-363).
  • 140  Jovian, Roman Emperor (363-364).
  • 141  Valentinian I, Western Roman Emperor (364-375); Valens, Eastern Roman Emperor (364-378).
  • 142  Istria : a zone inland of the northern coast of the Adriatic.
  • 143  Athanaric, Gothic leader (d. 381).
  • 144  Cf. Isidore, History of the Goths, 8.
  • 145  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.37; VIII.v.39; VIII.v.45.
  • 146  Gratian, Western Roman Emperor (367-382).
  • 147  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.54.
  • 148  Valentinian II, Western Roman Emperor (375-392); Theodosius I, Eastern Roman Emperor (379-392).
  • 149  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VI.xvi.7.
  • 150  Magnus Maximus, usurper (d. 388); for more on this episode, see Chadwick (1976).
  • 151  From 392 to 395 Theodosius I ruled with his sons, Honorius and Arcadius.
  • 152  Arcadius, Eastern Roman Emperor (395-408).
  • 153  Honorius, Western Roman Emperor (395-423).
  • 154  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.63.
  • 155  Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor (408-450).
  • 156  After the final division of the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves, Isidore dates solely (...)
  • 157  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.64.
  • 158  Marcian, Roman Emperor (450-457).
  • 159  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from VI to VII years. His source Victor o (...)
  • 160  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VI. Xvi.9; VIII.v.67.
  • 161  Theoderic II, King of the Visigoths (453-466).
  • 162  Furtado (2002), (2006), has demonstrated how, in the History of the Goths, Isidore modified his so (...)
  • 163  Leo I, Roman Emperor (457-474).
  • 164  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from xVI to XVII years. His source Victor (...)
  • 165  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VI.xvi.9.
  • 166  Cf. Isidore’s Etymologies, VIII.v.66.
  • 167  Zeno, Roman Emperor (474-491).
  • 168  Anastasius I, Roman Emperor (491-518).
  • 169  Thrasamund, King of the Vandals (496-523).
  • 170  Justin I, Roman Emperor (518-527).
  • 171  Hilderic, King of the Vandals (523-530).
  • 172  Justinian I, Roman Emperor (527-565).
  • 173  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from XXXVIIII to XL years. His source Vic (...)
  • 174  Isidore, Etymologies,VIII.v. 67.
  • 175  Belisarius, Roman general : Belisarius 1, Martindale, ed. (1992), 3A, p. 181-224.
  • 176  Narses, Roman general : Narses 1, Martindale, ed. (1992), 3B, p. 913-928.
  • 177  Justin II, Roman Emperor (565-578).
  • 178  On Sofia (565-601+), wife of Justin II, see Garland (1999), p. 40-57.
  • 179  Leovigild, King of the Visigoths (569-586).
  • 180  Tiberius II, Roman Emperor (578-582).
  • 181  Hermenegild, Visigothic usurper (d. 585).
  • 182  Hermenegild, Visigothic usurper (d. 585).
  • 183  Maurice, Roman Emperor (581-602).
  • 184  Reccared, King of the Visigoths (586-601).
  • 185  Phocas, Roman Emperor (602-610).
  • 186  This is a reference to civil strife between different circus factions in the east.
  • 187  Heraclius, Roman Emperor (610-641).
  • 188  This chapter, along with chapter 417, establishes that the first redactions was written in the yea (...)
  • 189  This chapter, along with chapter 417a, establishes the dating of the second redaction to the year (...)
  • 190  Sisebut, King of the Visigoths (612-621).
  • 191  Swinthila, King of the Visigoths (621-631). Isidore ignores the brief reign of Reccared II (621), (...)
  • 192  At this point Isidore is using a dating system, known as the Spanish era system, in use in Spain b (...)

Chapter

First redaction

Second redaction

1

Julius Africanus1 was the first from us2 to elicit a summary of the times by means of generations and reigns with a simple style of history under Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus3. Next Eusebius of Caesarea4 and Jerome5 of sacred memory published a history of the kingdoms simultaneously arranged in the multi-layered books of the chronological canons and by times.6 After these some and others [wrote], among whom especially Victor of Tunnuna7, bishop of the church, having reviewed the histories of the previously named, completed the deeds of subsequent ages up to the consulate of Justin the Younger8.

Julius Africanus was the first from us [= the Christians] to elicit a summary of the times by means of generations and reigns with a simple style of history under Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Next Eusebius of Caesarea and Jerome of sacred memory published a history of the kingdoms simultaneously arranged in the multi-layered books of the chronological canons and by times. After these some and others [wrote], among whom especially Victor of Tunnuna, bishop of the church, having reviewed the histories of the previously named, completed the deeds of subsequent ages up to the consulate of Justin the Younger.

2

We have recorded with as much brevity as we can the total of these times from the Creation of the world up to the rule of Augustus Heraclius9 and King Sisebut10, adding [material] from the side in a descending line of times, from which the essence of past ages becomes known by evidence.

We have recorded with as much brevity as we can the total of these times from the Creation of the world up to the times of Augustus Heraclius and King Swinthila11, adding [material] from the side in a descending line of times, from which the essence of past ages becomes known by evidence.

2a

First age of the world12

3

God created all things and all creatures in six days : on the first day he made light, on the second the support of the heavens, on the third the splendour of the sea and land, on the fourth the stars, on the fifth fishes and birds, on the sixth wild animals and beasts of burden, finally, in his own likeness, the first man, Adam.

God created all things and all creatures in six days : on the first day he made light, on the second the support of the heavens, on the third the splendour of the sea and land, on the fourth the stars, on the fifth fishes and birds, on the sixth wild animals and beasts of burden, finally, in his own likeness, the first man, Adam.

4

230

Adam, at the age of 230, bore Seth, who was born before Abel, and which means ‘resurrection’ because in him was reawakened the just seed, which is the race of the sons of God.

230

Adam, at the age of 230, bore Seth, who was born before Abel, and which means ‘resurrection’ because in him was reawakened the just seed, which is the race of the sons of God.

5

435

Seth, at the age of 205 years, begot Enos, who first began to invoke the name of God.

435

Seth, at the age of 205 years, begot Enos, who first began to invoke the name of God.

6

625

Enos, at the age of 190 years, begot Cainan, whose name translates as ‘the nature of God’.

625

Enos, at the age of 190 years, begot Cainan.

6a

At the same time Cain first founded a city before the Flood which he filled only with the multitude of his descendents.  

7

795

Cainan, at the age of 170, begot Malalehel, whose name means ‘the plantation of God’.

795

Cainan, at the age of 170, begot Malalehel, whose name means ‘the plantation of God’.

8

960

Malalehel, at the age of 165, begot Iareth, which means ‘the descendent’ or ‘the one giving strength’.

960

Malalehel, at the age of 165, begot Iareth, which means ‘the descendent’ or ‘the one giving strength’.

9

1122

Iareth, at the age of 162, begot Enoch, who was lifted up to God, and who is considered to have written several things, but which, on account of their antiquity are refuted by the fathers as being of suspect faith.

1122

Iareth, at the age of 162, begot Enoch, who was lifted up to God, and who is considered to have written several things, but which, on account of their antiquity are refuted by the fathers as being of suspect faith.

10

1287

Enoch, at the age of 165, begat Matusala, who, it is discovered from the length of his life, survived for 14 years after the Flood. On account of which several consider with false opinion that he was with his father Enoch, who was lifted up, for a short time while the Flood was passing by.

1287

Enoch, at the age of 165, begat Matusala, who, it is discovered from the length of his life, survived for 14 years after the Flood. On account of which several consider with false opinion that he was with his father Enoch, who was lifted up, for a short time while the Flood was passing by.

11

In this generation the sons of God longed for the daughters of men.

In this generation the sons of God longed for the daughters of men.

12

1454

Matusala, at the age of 167, begot Lamech.

1454

Matusala, at the age of 167, begot Lamech.

13

In this generation the giants were born.

In this generation the giants were born.

14

Also, in this age, Iubal, from the lineage of Cain, discovered the art of music, furthermore whose brother Tubalcain was the inventor of bronze and iron.

Also, in this age, Iubal, from the lineage of Cain, discovered the art of music, furthermore his brother Tubalcain was the inventor of bronze and iron.

15

1642

Lamech, at the age of 188, begat Noah, of whom it is ordered, by a divine oracle, that he build the Ark in the 500th year of his life.

1642

Lamech, at the age of 188, begat Noah, of whom it is ordered, by a divine oracle, that he build the Ark in the 500th year of his life.

16

In these times, as Josephus reports13, those men, because they knew that they could die either by fire or by water, wrote down their studies on two columns made from brick and stone, lest the memory of those things which they had discovered wisely were not deleted. It is held that their stone column evaded the Flood evaded and that it remains to this day in Syria.

In these times, as Josephus reports, those men, because they knew that they could die either by fire or by water, wrote down their studies on two columns made from brick and stone, lest the memory of those things which they had discovered wisely were not deleted. It is held that their stone column evaded the Flood evaded and that it remains to this day in Syria.

17

2242

It is read that the Flood happened in the 600th year of Noah, whose Ark Josephus14 reports to have settled in the mountains of Armenia, which is named Ararat.

2242

It is read that the Flood happened in the 600th year of Noah, whose Ark Josephus reports to have settled in the mountains of Armenia, which is named Ararat.

18

Moreover there were three sons of Noah, from whom 72 peoples are descended : that is 15 from Iafeth, 30 from Cham, 27 from Sem

Moreover there were three sons of Noah, from whom 72 peoples are descended : that is 15 from Iafeth, 30 from Cham, 27 from Sem

18a

Second age of the world

19

2244

In the second year after the Flood Sem bore Arfaxat, from whom the Chaldeans [descend].

2244

In the second year after the Flood Sem bore Arfaxat, from whom the people of the Chaldeans descended

19a

This Sem bore Melchisedech, who first founded the city of Salem after the Flood, which is now called Jerusalem

20

2379

Arfaxat, at the age of 135, begot Salam, from whom [descend], in the old manner, the Samaritans, or Indians.

2379

Arfaxat, at the age of 135, begot Salam, from whom [descend], in the old manner, the Samaritans, or Indians.

21

2509

Sala, at the age of 130, begot Heber, from whom the Hebrews are named

2509

Sala, at the age of 130, begot Heber, from whom the Hebrews are named

22

2643

Heber, at the age of 134, begot Falech, in whose time a tower was built and the division of the languages made. It is said that this tower has a height of 5174 paces; it narrows from wide to narrow gradually so that it more easily endured a great weight. There they describe a marble temple adorned with precious stones and gold and many other things which seem incredible. Nebroth the giant, who after the confusion of the languages moved from that place to Persia and taught them to worship fire, built this tower.

2643

Heber, at the age of 134, begot Falech, in whose time a tower was built and the division of the languages made. It is said that this tower has a height of 5174 paces; it narrows from wide to narrow gradually so that it more easily endured a great weight. There they describe a marble temple adorned with precious stones and gold and many other things which seem incredible. Nebroth the giant, who after the confusion of the languages moved from that place to Persia and taught them to worship fire, built this tower.

23

2773

Falech, at the age of 130, begat Ragau.

2773

Falech, at the age of 130, begat Ragau.

24

In these times the first temples were constructed and certain leaders of the peoples began to be worshipped just like gods.

In these times the first temples were constructed and certain leaders of the peoples began to be worshipped just like gods.

25

2905

Ragau, at the age of 132, begat Seruch.

2905

Ragau, at the age of 132, begat Seruch.

26

Under whom the Scythian kingdom began, where Tanus was the first to rule.

Under whom the Scythian kingdom began, where Tanus first ruled.

27

3035

Seruch, at the age of 130, begat Nahor.

3035

Seruch, at the age of 130, begat Nahor.

28

The Egyptian kingdom, where Zoes ruled first, assumed the principal rule.

The Egyptian kingdom, where Zoes ruled first, assumed the principal rule.

29

3114

Nahor, at the age of 79, begat Thara.

3114

Nahor, at the age of 79, begat Thara.

30

Under whom the kingdom of the Assyrians and the Sicinians arises. But Belus ruled first in Assyria, who some believe to be Saturn; and Agialeus [ruled] first among the Sicinians, from whom Agialea is named, which up to now is called the Peloponnese.

Under whom the kingdom of the Assyrians and the Sicinians arises. But Belus ruled first in Assyria, who some believe to be Saturn; and Agialeus [ruled] first among the Sicinians, from whom Agialea is named, which up to now is called the Peloponnese.

(33a)

Third age of the world

31

3184

Thara, at the age of 70, begat Abraham.

3184

Thara, at the age of 70, begat Abraham.

31a

At the same time Ninus the king of Assyrians reigned, who first made wars and invented the equipment of weapons.

32

Under whom Zoroaster, discoverer of magic, is killed by King Ninus.

32a

In this age the magic skill was discovered in Persia by Zoroaster king of the Bactrians.

33

And the walls of Babylon are built by Semiramis queen of the Assyrians.

Also, the walls of Babylon are built at this time by Semiramis queen of the Assyrians.

34

3284

Abraham, at the age of 100, begat Isaac from the freewoman Sarra. For he had first begot Ismahel from the slave girl Agar, from whom the people of the Ismahelites, afterwards Aragenes, and finally Saracens, were called.

3284

Abraham, at the age of 100, begat Isaac from the freewoman Sarra. For he had first begot Ismahel from the slave girl Agar, from whom the people of the Ismahelites, afterwards Aragenes, and finally Saracens, were called.

35

3344

Isaac, at the age of 60, begat twins, of whom the first was Esau, from whom the Idumites were named, second Iacob, who was surnamed Israhel, and from whom the Israelites were named.

3344

Isaac, at the age of 60, begat twins, of whom the first was Esau, from whom the Idumites were named, second Iacob, who was surnamed Israhel, and from whom the Israelites were named.

36

At this time the kingdom of the Greeks started, where Inachus first reigned.

At this time the kingdom of the Greeks started, where Inachus first reigned.

37

Whose son was King Phoroneus, who first drew up laws and trials in Greece.15

38

In these times it is written that Minerva had appeared in the form of a virgin at Lake Triton.

39

3434

Iacob, at the age of 90, begat Ioseph.

3434

Iacob, at the age of 90, begat Ioseph.

40

In these times Sirapis king of the Egyptians, the son of Iovis, upon dying, is carried over to the gods

In these times Sirapis king of the Egyptians, the son of Iovis, upon dying, is carried over to the gods.

(38)

Then Minerva, who is proclaimed to have been famous by many tricks, appeared in the shape of a virgin at Lake Triton. For she is said to have been the inventress of crafts, she invented the shield and the bow, she taught how to make a spear and to dye wool.

(37)

And also in this age king Phoroneus, son of Inachus, was famous. He was the first to institute laws and trials in Greece.

41

and the city of Memphis was built in Egypt.

42

3544

Ioseph for 110 years.

3544

Ioseph for 110 years.

43

At this time, Greece, with Argos reigning, began to have crops with seeds brought down from another place.

At this time, Greece, with Argos reigning, began to have crops with seeds brought down from another place.

44

3688

The servitude of the Hebrews in Egypt [lasted] 144 years.

3688

The servitude of the Hebrews in Egypt [lasted] 144 years.

45

It is written that Prometheus, whom fables imagine to have shaped men out of mud, existed in these times.

It is written that Prometheus, whom fables imagine to have shaped men out of mud, existed in these times.

46

Then furthermore his brother Atlas was considered a great astrologer.

46a

Then furthermore his brother Atlas discovered astrology and first contemplated the movement and the arrangement of heaven.

47

And Mercury the grandson of Atlas was skilled in many of the arts and, on account of this, after his death was carried across into the gods.

And then Mercury the grandson of Atlas was skilled in many of the arts and, on account of this, after his death was carried across into the gods.

48

And also in this age Prociclus first harnessed a chariot team of four horses.

And also in this age Prociclus first harnessed a chariot team of four horses.

49

And at the same time Cecrops founded Athens and from the name of Minerva called the Atticans Athenians.16

And at the same time Cecrops founded Athens and from the name of Minerva called the Atticans Athenians.

50

He also, sacrificing a bull, first instructed [them] to worship Jove with sacrifice.

He also, sacrificing a bull, first instructed [them] to worship Jove with sacrifice.

46b

At this same time Corinth was founded in Greece and there the art of painting was discovered by Cleanthus.

51

Then the Coretes and the Coribantes were the first to invent the musical and harmonious war dance.

Then the Coretes and the Coribantes were the first to invent the musical and harmonious war dance.

52

Then also it is written that a flood was made in Thessaly under Diocalion

Then also it is written that a flood was made in Thessaly under Diocalion

53

and a legendary fire at Faeton.

and a legendary fire at Faeton.

54

3728

Moses guided the people in the desert from Egyptian servitude to freedom for 60 year.

3728

Moses guided the people in the desert from Egyptian servitude to freedom for 60 year.

55

At this time the Jews began to have law and letters at the same time through Moses17

At this time the Jews began to have law and letters at the same time through Moses

56

Then the temple of Dephi is constructed,

Then the temple of Dephi is constructed,

57

Lacedaemon is founded,

Lacedaemon is founded,

58

the vine is discovered in Greece.

the vine is discovered in Greece.

59

3755

Ioshua, successor of Moses, guides the people for 27 years.

3755

Ioshua, successor of Moses, guides the people for 27 years.

60

In these times Erectonius, leaderof the Athenians, first harnessed as chariot team of four horses in Greece.

In these times Erectonius, leaderof the Athenians, first harnessed as chariot team of four horses in Greece.

61

3795

Gothoniel18 for 40 years.

3795

Gothoniel for 40 years.

62

Cadmus, who first invented Greek letters, reigns in Thebes.19

Cadmus, who first invented Greek letters, reigns in Thebes.

63

During the same time Linus and Anphion were first famous among the Greeks in the musical art.

But also Linus and Anphion were then first famous among the Greeks in the musical art.

At that time the Ideian Dactyles discovered iron.

64a

And the Ideian Dactyles discovered the metal iron at the same time in Greece.

65

3875

Aoth20 for 80 years.

3875

Aoth for 80 years.

66

In these times fables were made : about Treptolemus, who, ordered by Ceres, having been carried by the wings of serpents in order to fly, distributed grain to the poor;

In these times fables were made : about Treptolemus, who, ordered by Ceres, having been carried by the wings of serpents in order to fly, distributed grain to the poor;

67

about Hippocentaur, in whom were mixed the natures of horses and men;

about Hippocentaur, in whom were mixed the natures of horses and men;

68

about Cerberus, the three-headed dog of the infernal regions;

about Cerberus, the three-headed dog of the infernal regions;

69

about Frixus and Helle, his sister, who, carried by a ram, flew through the air;

about Frixus and Helle, his sister, who, carried by a ram, flew through the air;

70

about the harlot Gorgon, whose hair was made from serpents and she turned those who gaze upon her into stone;

about the harlot Gorgon, whose hair was made from serpents and she turned those who gaze upon her into stone;

71

about Bellerophon, who was carried on the wings of a flying horse;

about Bellerophon, who was carried on the wings of a flying horse;

72

about Anphion, who with the sound of his cithara moved stones and rocks.

about Anphion, who with the sound of his cithara moved stones and rocks.

73

3915

Deborah21 for 40 years.

3915

Deborah for 40 years.

74

At the same time Apollo discovered the art of medicine.

At the same time Apollo made the cithara and discovered the art of medicine.

75

Also fables were then made about the inventor Daedalus and his son Icarus, who flew with wings joined to themselves.

Also fables were then made about the inventor Daedalus and his son Icarus, who flew with wings joined to themselves.

76

In this age Picus, who it is held was the son of Saturn, reigned among the Latins.  

In this age Picus, who it is held was the son of Saturn, reigned among the Latins.  

77

3855

Gideon22 for 40 years.

3855

Gideon for 40 years.

77a

In this age the other Mercury discovered the lyre and handed it over to Orpheus.

77b

At this time Philemon first instituted the chorus at Pythium.

78

The Tyrian city was built.

79

Orpheus, Trax and Linus, the teacher of Hercules, were considered as famous discoverers of the musical art.

80

The voyage of the Argonauts is recorded.

Also, the voyage of the Argonauts is recorded then.

81

3958

Abimelech23 for 3 years.

3958

Abimelech for 3 years.

82

He killed his own 70 brothers.

82a

Hercules devastated Ilium.

(88)

and he killed Anteus the inventor of the art of gymnastics.

83

3981

Tola24 for 23 years.

3981

Tola for 23 years.

84

In whose times Priam ruled in Troy, after Laumedon.

In whose times Priam ruled in Troy, after Laumedon.

85

Then the fable was composed about the beast the minotaur imprisoned in the labyrinth.

Then the fable was composed about the beast the minotaur imprisoned in the labyrinth.

86

4003

Iar25 for 22 years.

4003

Iar for 22 years.

87

During these times Hercules established the Olympic games.

Hercules instituted the Olympic games.

88

and killed Anteus in Libya.

(97)

The nymph Carmentis discovered Latin letters.

89

4009

Iepte26 for 6 years.

4009

Iepte for 6 years.

90

In whose times Hercules, being in his 52nd year, on account of the pain of his illness, threw himself into the flames.

In whose times Hercules, being in his 52nd year, on account of the pain of his illness, threw himself into the flames.

91

At the same time Alexander snatched Helen and the Trojan war arose for 10 years.

92

4016

Abessa27 for 7 years.

4016

Abessa for 7 years.

(91)

At the same time Alexander snatched Helen and the Trojan war arose for 10 years.

93

The Amazons took up arms for the first time.

The Amazons took up arms for the first time.

94

4024

Abdon28 for 8 years.

4024

Abdon for 8 years.

95

In whose third year Troy was captured.

Troy is captured

96

and Aeneas came to Italy.

and Aeneas came to Italy.

97

In this age the nymph Carmentis discovered Latin letters.29

98

4044

Samson30 for 20 years.

4044

Samson for 20 years.

99

Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, founded Alba.

Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, founded Alba.

100

Also, at the same time, fables were composed about Ulysses and of the sirens.

Also, at the same time, fables were composed about Ulysses and of the sirens.

101

4084

Heli the priest31 for 40 years.

4084

Heli the priest for 40 years.

102

The Arc of the Covenant is seized by foreigners.

The Arc of the Covenant is seized by foreigners.

103

And the kingdom of Sicyon is ended.

and the kingdom of Sicyon is ended.

104

4124

Samuel and Saul32 for 40 years.

4124

Samuel and Saul for 40 years.

105

The kingdom of the Lacedaemonians arises

The kingdom of the Lacedaemonians arises

106

And it is thought that Homer [lived at this time].

and it is thought that in Greece Homer was the first poet .

106a

Fourth age of the world

107

4164

David33 for 40 years.

4164

David for 40 years.

108

Codrus, offering himself voluntarily to his enemies, is put to death

Codrus, king of the Athenians, offering himself voluntarily to his enemies for the health of his country, is put to death

109

and Carthage is built by Dido.

and Carthage is built by Dido.34

110

While Gad, Nathan and Asaph were prophesying in Judaea.

While Gad, Nathan and Asaph were prophesying in Judaea.

111

4204

Solomon35 reigned for 40 years.

4204

Solomon reigned for 40 years.

112

In the fourth year of his reign he began building the Temple of Jerusalem and in the 8th year finished it.

In the fourth year of his reign he began building the Temple of Jerusalem and in the 8th year finished it.

113

4221

Roboam36 reigned for 17 years.

4221

Roboam reigned for 17 years.

114

Under whom the ten tribes were separated from the two [tribes] and they began to have kings in Samaria.

The kingdom of Israel is divided from Judah.

115

In this age Samos is founded.

Samos is founded.

116

The sibyl Eritia is considered illustrious.

The sibyl Eritia is considered illustrious.

117

4224

Abia37 reigned for 3 years.

4224

Abia reigned for 3 years.

118

Under whom the high priest of the Hebrews, Abimelech, was considered distinguished.

Under whom the high priest of the Hebrews, Abimelech, was considered distinguished.

119

4265

Asa38 reigned for 41 years.

4265

Asa reigned for 41 years.

120

Achias, Amos, Ieu, Iohel and Azarias were prophesying in Judaea.

Achias, Amos, Ieu, Iohel and Azarias were prophesying in Judaea.

121

4290

Josaphat39 reigned for 25 years.

4290

Josaphat reigned for 25 years.

122

Helias and Heliseus, Abdias, Azarias and Micheas were prophesying.

Helias, Abdias and Micheas were prophesying.

123

4298

Ioram40 reigned for 8 years.

4298

Ioram reigned for 8 years.

124

Helias and Heliseus and Abdias were prophesying.

Helias and Heliseus were prophesying.

125

4299

Ozochias41 reigned for 1 year.

4299

Ozochias reigned for 1 year.

126

Helias is carried up.

Helias, whose famous miracles number 7, is carried up.

127

4306

Athalia42 reigns for 7 years.

4306

Athalia reigns for 7 years.

128

Ionadab the priest, son of Recab, is considered famous.

Ionadab the priest, son of Recab, is considered famous.

129

as was Ioiade the priest, who alone after Moses is regarded to have lived for 130 years.

as was Ioiade the priest, who alone after Moses is regarded to have lived for 130 years.

130

4346

Ioas43 reigned for 40 years.

4346

Ioas reigned for 40 years.

131

Zacharias the prophet is killed.

Zacharias the prophet is killed.

132

And Heliseus dies.

Heliseus, whose virtues are said to number 14, dies.

133

Also, Licurgus the legislator of Apollo is considered distinguished.

Also, Licurgus the legislator of Apollo is considered distinguished in Greece.

134

4375

Amasias44 reigned for 29 years.

4375

Amasias reigned for 29 years.

134a

Certain people assert that Carthage was founded at this time, others that is was earlier.45

135

4427

Ozias46 reigned for 52 years.

4427

Ozias reigned for 52 years.

(140)

The Olympics are established first by the Greeks.

(140a)

A lamb speaks in Egypt.

136

Sardanapallus the king is burned by a fire.

Sardanapallus the king is burned by a spontaneous fire.

137

and the Assyrian kingdom is transferred to the Medes.

and the Assyrian kingdom is transferred to the Medes.

138

Then the poet Hesiod was famous.

Then the poet Hesiod was famous.

139

and Phidon the Argive discovered measures and weights.

and Phidon the Argive discovered measures and weights.

140

At the same time the first Olympiad was established by the Greeks.47

141

Osee, Amos, Esaia and Iona were prophesising in Judaea.

In this age Osee, Amos, Esaia and Iona prophesied in Judaea.

142

4443

Ioathan48 reigned for 16 years.

4443

Ioathan reigned for 16 years.

143

Remus and Romulus are born.

Remus and Romulus are born.

144

While Osee and Iohel, Esaia and Michea were prophesying in Judaea.

While Osee and Iohel, Esaia and Michea were prophesying in Judaea.

145

4459

Achaz49 reigned for 16 years.

4459

Achaz reigned for 16 years.

146

In whose times Romulus founded Rome.

In whose times Romulus founded Rome.

147

and Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians, brought across the ten tribes into Media and sent the neighbouring Samaritans into Judaea.

and Sennacherib, king of the Assyrians, led across the ten tribes into Media and sent the neighbouring Samaritans into Judaea.

148

4488

Ezechias50 reigned for 29 years.

4488

Ezechias reigned for 29 years.

149

Under whom Esaias and Osee were prophesying.

Under whom Esaias and Osee were prophesying.

150

At this time Romulus first selected soldiers out of the people and chose 100 most noble men from the people, who, on account of their age were called senators, [and] on account of their care and concern were called fathers of the republic.51

At this time Romulus selected soldiers out of the people for the first time and chose 100 most noble men from the people, who, on account of their age he called senators, [and] on account of their care and concern he called fathers of the republic.

151

4543

Manasses52 reigned for 55 years.

4543

Manasses reigned for 55 years.

152

At the same time Numa Pompilius, who first instituted the Vestal Virgins, was in charge of the Romans.

At the same time Numa Pompilius, who first instituted high priests and Vestal Virgins, was in charge of the Romans. He filled up the city with a multitude of false gods.

153

he added 2 months, January and February, to the 10 months of year.

153a

He added 2 months to the 10 months of the Roman year : he dedicated January to the gods of the heavens, February to the gods of the infernal regions.

154

Also, the sibyl of Samos was famous then.

Also, the sibyl of Samos was famous then.

155

4555

Amon53 reigned for 12 years.

4555

Amon reigned for 12 years.

156

In whose times Tullius Hostilius first conducted a census in the republic and was the first to use purple clothing and fasces.

In whose times Tullius Hostilius was the first to use purple clothing and fasces. He first conducted a census, which up until this point was unknown throughout the world, in the republic.

157

4587

Iosias54 reigned for 32 years.

4587

Iosias reigned for 32 years.

158

Thales of Miletus was considered the first famous natural philosopher.

Thales of Miletus, a natural philosopher, was famous, who first investigated, with the sharpest observation, having understood the calculations of astrology, the eclipse of the sun.

159

While Heiremia, Olda and Sophonia were prophesying in Judaea.

While Heiremia, Olda and Sophonia were prophesying in Judaea.

160

4598

Ioachim55 reigned for 11 years.

4598

Ioachim reigned for 11 years.

161

In whose third year Nabuchodonosor, having seized Judaea, made it tributary.

In whose third year Nabuchodonosor, having seized Judaea, made it tributary.

162

Then Daniel, Ananias, Azarias and Misahel were famous in Babylon.

Then Daniel, Ananias, Azarias and Misahel were famous in Babylon.

163

4609

Sedecias56 reigned for 11 years.

4609

Sedecias reigned for 11 years.

164

The king of Babylon coming to Jerusalem for a second time leads him [away] as a prisoner with his people, after the temple had been burned in the 454th year of its construction.

The king of Babylon coming to Jerusalem for a second time leads him [away] as a prisoner with his people, [and] he burns down the temple in the 454th year of its construction.

165

At the same time the woman Sappho was famous for her varied poetry.

At the same time the woman Sappho was famous in Greece for her varied poetry.

166

Solon gave laws to the Athenians.57

Solon gave laws to the Athenians.

166a

Fifth age of the world

167

4679

The captivity of the Hebrews lasted for 70 years, during which the fire, having been removed from the altar and hidden in a well, after the seventieth year of the return is raised up, having been discovered alive58

4679

The captivity of the Hebrews lasted for 70 years, during which the fire, having been removed from the altar of God and hidden in a well, after the seventieth year of the return is raised up, having been discovered alive

168

At the same time of the captivity the history of Iudith is composed.

At the same time of the captivity the history of Iudith is composed.

169

Also, Pythagoras was considered famous as a philosopher and the inventor of the art of arithmetic

Also, Pythagoras, the philosopher and the inventor of the art of arithmetic

169a

and Pherecides, the first writer of histories, and Xenophon, the inventor of tragedies, were considered famous.

170

4713

Darius59 ruled for 34 years

4713

Darius ruled for 34 years

171

In whose second year the captivity of the Jews was ended, from which time in Jerusalem there were not kings, but leading men, up to Aristobolus.

In whose second year the captivity of the Jews was ended, from which time in Jerusalem there were not kings, but leading men, up to Aristobolus.

172

Then the Romans, having driven out their kings, began to have consuls.60

Then the Romans, having driven out their kings, began to have consuls.

173

4733

Xerxes61 reigned for 20 years.

4733

Xerxes reigned for 20 years.

174

Escilius, Pindar, Sophocles and Euripides are celebrated as famous writers of tragedies.

Escilius, Pindar, Sophocles and Euripides are celebrated as famous writers of tragedies.

175

Also Herodotus is acknowledged as a writer of histories and Zeusis as a painter.

Also Herodotus is acknowledged as a writer of histories and Zeusis as a painter.

176

4773

Artaxerxes62, who was also known as Longimanus, reigned for 40 years.

4773

Artaxerxes, who was also known as Longimanus, reigned for 40 years.

177

With him reigning Esdras the priest renovated the law.63

With him reigning Esdras the priest renovated the law that had been burnt by the [enemy] peoples.

178

Neemias restored the walls of Jerusalem.

Neemias restored the walls of Jerusalem.

179

Furthermore, Aristarchus and Aristophanes and Sophocles were considered [famous] writers of tragedies

Furthermore, Aristarchus and Aristophanes and Sophocles were famous writers of tragedies

180

also Hippocrates the doctor and Socrates the philosopher and Democritus were famous.

also Cratinus the first comic and Hippocrates the doctor and Socrates the philosopher and Democritus were famous.

181

4792

Darius64, who is also known as Notus, reigned for 19 years.

4792

Darius, who is also known as Notus, reigned for 19 years.

182

Plato is born

182a

This age had the philosopher Plato and Gorgias the first teacher of rhetoric.

183

4832

Artaxerxes65 reigned for 40 years.

4832

Artaxerxes reigned for 40 years.

184

It is taught that in his time the story of Hester is completed

It is taught that in his time the story of Hester is completed

185

also, Plato and Xenophon were considered outstanding of the Socratics.

also, Xenophon the Socratic is considered outstanding.

186

4858

Artaxerxes66, who is also known as Ochus, reigned for 26 years.

4858

Artaxerxes, who is also known as Ochus, reigned for 26 years.

187

Demosthenes is recognised as the first orator.

Demosthenes is recognised as the first orator.

188

And Aristotle the philosopher is praised.

and Aristotle is praised as the first dialectician.

189

Plato dies.

Plato dies.

190

4862

Xerxes67, son of Ochus, reigned 4 years.

4862

Xerxes, son of Ochus, reigned 4 years.

191

Xenocrates the philosopher is considered illustrious.

Xenocrates the philosopher is considered illustrious.

192

4868

Darius68 reigned 6 years.

4868

Darius reigned 6 years.

193

Alexander, conquering the Illyrians and the Thracians, then took Jerusalem and having entered the temple offered sacrifices to God.

Alexander, conquering the Illyrians and the Thracians, then took Jerusalem and having entered the temple offered sacrifices to God.

194

Up to this point the Persian kingdom stood firm, thereafter the kings of the Greeks begin

Up to this point the Persian kingdom stood firm, thereafter the kings of the Greeks begin

195

4873

Alexander the Macedonian69 reigned for 5 years. Indeed, in his last 5 years, as they are reckoned in order, he obtained the monarchy of the world, for his 7 earlier years are computed alongside [years of] the kings of the Persians. Thereafter the kings of Alexandria begin.

4873

Alexander the Macedonian reigned for 5 years. Indeed, in his last 5 years, as they are reckoned in order, he obtained the monarchy of Asia, having destroyed the kingdom of the Persians, for his 7 earlier years are computed alongside [years of] the kings of the Persians. Thereafter the kings of Alexandria begin.

196

4913

Ptolemy70, son of Lagus, reigned 40 years.

4913

Ptolemy, son of Lagus, reigned 40 years.

197

He, capturing Judaea, transferred many of the Hebrews into Egypt.

He, capturing Judaea, transferred many of the Hebrews into Egypt.

198

At this time Zeno the Stoic and Menander the comic and Theophratus the philosopher were famous.

At this time Zeno the Stoic and Menander the comic and Theophratus the philosopher were famous.

199

Furthermore, at the same time the first book of the Maccabees begins.

Furthermore, at the same time the first book of the Maccabees begins.

200

4951

Ptolemy Philadelphus71 reigned 38 years.

4951

Ptolemy Philadelphus reigned 38 years.

201

He freed the Jews who were in Egypt and, restoring the holy vessels of the priest Eleazar, he asked for 70 translators and translated the divine scriptures into the Greek language.72

He freed the Jews who were in Egypt and, restoring the holy vessels of the priest Eleazar, he asked for 70 translators and translated the divine scriptures into the Greek language.

202

At the same time Aratus the astrologer is acknowledged

At the same time Aratus the astrologer is acknowledged

203

And silver coins are minted for the first time at Rome.

And silver coins are minted for the first time at Rome.

204

4977

Ptolemy Evergetes73 reigned 26 years.

4977

Ptolemy Evergetes reigned 26 years.

205

Under whom Jesus, son of Sirach, composed a book of wisdom.

Under whom Jesus, son of Sirach, composed a book of wisdom.

206

4994

Ptolemy Philopator74 reigned 17 years.

4994

Ptolemy Philopator reigned 17 years.

207

The Jews were defeated by him in battle, 60,000 soldiers fell.

The Jews were defeated by him in battle, 60,000 soldiers fell.

208

And Marcellus, the consul, occupied Sicily.

At the same time Marcellus, the consul, occupied Sicily.

209

5018

Ptolemy Epiphanes75 reigned 24 years.

5018

Ptolemy Epiphanes reigned 24 years.

210

In whose time those things occurred which the story of the second book of the Maccabees contains.

In whose time those things occurred which the story of the second book of the Maccabees contains.

210a

In this age the victorious Romans ordered the Greeks to be free

211

In this age the poet Ennius is celebrated.

211a

At this time Ennius the first Latin poet is celebrated at Rome as outstanding.

212

5053

Ptolemy Philometor76 reigned 35 years.

5053

Ptolemy Philometor reigned 35 years.

213

He overcame this Antiochus in battle and oppressed the Jews with varied calamity.

He overcame this Antiochus in battle and oppressed the Jews with varied calamity.

214

At the same time Scipio conquered Africa.

At the same time Scipio conquered Africa.

214a

Terence the comic was famous.

215

5082

Ptolemy Evergetes77 reigned 29 years.

5082

Ptolemy Evergetes reigned 29 years.

216

At this time Spain is occupied by the Romans through the consul Brutus.

At this time Spain is occupied by the Romans through the consul Brutus.

217

5099

Ptolemy Soter78 reigned 17 years.

5099

Ptolemy Soter reigned 17 years.

218

Varro and Cicero are born.

Varro and Cicero are born.

219

The Thracians are made subject by the Romans.

The Thracians are made subject by the Romans.

220

5109

Ptolemy Alexander79 reigned 10 years.

5109

Ptolemy Alexander reigned 10 years.

221

Syria goes over into the dominion of the Romans through the dux Gabinius.

Syria goes over into the dominion of the Romans through the dux Gabinius.

222

Also the poet Lucretius, who afterwards killed himself with the madness of lovers, is born.

Also the poet Lucretius, who afterwards killed himself with the madness of lovers, is born.

223

5117

Ptolemy80, son of Cleopatra, reigned 8 years.

5117

Ptolemy, son of Cleopatra, reigned 8 years.

224

At the same time Plotius Gallus first taught Latin rhetoric at Rome.

At the same time Plotius Gallus first taught Latin rhetoric at Rome.

225

Then also Sallust the historian is born.

Then also Sallust the historian is born.

226

5147

Ptolemy Dionisius81 reigned 30 years.

5147

Ptolemy Dionisius reigned 30 years.

227

When Jerusalem had been captured by the Romans Pompey made the Jews tributaries.

When Jerusalem had been captured by the Romans Pompey made the Jews tributaries.

228

At the same time Cato the philosopher is acknowledged.

At the same time Cato the philosopher is acknowledged.

229a

Virgil is born at Mantua, Oratius at Venusina.

230

Apollodorus the teacher of Augustus is considered famous

Then also Apollodorus the teacher of Augustus is considered famous

231

and Cicero is celebrated with praise for oratory.

and Cicero is celebrated with praise for oratory.

232

5149

Cleopatra82 reigned 2 years, because in her third year Julius Caesar assumes power.

5149

Cleopatra reigned 2 years.

232a

She was the daughter of Ptolemy king of the Egyptians and sister of Ptolemy and she was made the wife of her brother. As she wanted to defraud him of the kingdom, at the time of the civil war in Alexandria she ran to meet Caesar and by means of her beauty and her dishonour the kingdom and the death of Ptolemy were granted to her in the presence of Julius and the kingdom of Alexandria went over into Roman authority.

233

5154

Gaius Julius Caesar83 reigned 5 years.

5154

Gaius Julius Caesar reigned 5 years.

233a

He obtained Gaul before he was appointed consul,

233b

he triumphed over Britain.

234

He first obtained sole rule over the Romans, after whom the Caesars are actually named. Hereafter emperors follow.84

234a

Following the civil war against Pompey, when he had been invited, he obtained the monarchy of the entire Roman Empire, from whose name the following emperors were called ‘Caesar’. After him emperors follow.

(237a)

Sixth age of the world

235

5210

Octavian Augustus85 reigned 56 years.

5210

Octavian Augustus reigned 56 years.

235a

In his imperium, after the Sicilian war, he conducted three triumphs : of Dalmatia, of Asia, finally the Alexandrian against Antony; thence Spain. Then, with peace having been brought on land and sea to the entire world, he closed and fastened the gates of Janus.

236

During whose imperium the 69 weeks written about in Daniel are fulfilled.

During whose imperium the 69 weeks written about in Daniel are fulfilled.

237

And, with the ceasing of the kingdom and priesthood of the Jews, the Lord Jesus is born from the Virgin in the forty-second year of his rule.

And, with the ceasing of the kingdom and priesthood of the Jews, the Lord Jesus is born of the Virgin in Bethlehem in the forty-second year of his rule.

238

5233

Tiberius86, the son of Augustus, reigned 23 years.

5233

Tiberius reigned 23 years.

238a

As long as, through greed, he would not send back the kings who came to him, many peoples withdrew from the Roman Empire.

239

In whose eighteenth year the Lord was crucified, when 5228 years had passed from the Creation of the world.

In whose eighteenth year the Lord was crucified, when 5228 years had passed from the Creation of the world.

240

5237

Gaius Caligula87 reigned 4 years.

5237

Gaius Caligula reigned 4 years.

241

He ordered that a statue of Jupiter be placed under his name in the Temple of Jerusalem.

He was savage in his avarice, cruelty and luxury, and, raising himself into the gods, ordered that a statue of Jupiter be placed under his name in the Temple of Jerusalem.

242

At the same time Matthew the apostle wrote the first gospel in Judaea.

At the same time Matthew the apostle wrote the first gospel in Judaea.

243

5251

Claudius88 reigned 14 years.

5251

Claudius reigned 14 years.

243a

Ruling moderately, he conducted many things in an ordinary manner, many in a cruel way

244

Peter proceeded to Rome to overcome Simon Magus.89

With him reigning Peter the apostle proceeded to Rome against Simon Magus.

245

Also, Mark, the evangelist, preached at Alexandria.

Also, Mark the evangelist wrote a gospel of Christ while preaching at Alexandria.

246

5265

Nero90 reigned 14 years.

5264

Nero reigned 13 years91.

246a

He, being given to too much cruelty and luxury, fished with nets of gold

246b

He prostituted and killed his mother and sister

246c

He destroyed much of the Senate

246d

He lost many provinces and cities of the republic

246e

Also, he burnt the city of Rome, so that he might see an image of the Trojan ruin.

247

In whose times Simon Magus, when he had proposed an argument with the apostles Peter and Paul, saying that he was a great power of God, he promised to fly to the father in heaven at midday, [aided] by the demons, by whom he was carried into the air, [Simon], having been abandoned [by the demons], by Peter cursing them through God, [and] indeed through praying by Paul, he crashed. On account of whose death Peter is crucified by Nero, Paul is cut down by the sword.

In whose times Simon Magus, when he had proposed an argument with the apostles Peter and Paul, saying that he was a great power of God, he promised to fly into the sky at midday, [aided] by the demons, by whom he was carried into the air, [Simon], having been abandoned [by the demons], by Peter cursing them through God, [and] indeed through praying by Paul, he crashed. On account of whose death Peter is crucified by Nero, Paul is cut down by the sword.

(249)

Then Lucan and Seneca the teacher of Nero are killed by the same Nero.

248

At this time the poet Persius dies.

The poet Persius dies.

249

Also Lucan and Seneca the teacher of Nero are killed.

250

5275

Vespasian92 reigned 10 years.

5274

Vespasian reigned 10 years.

250a

Vigorous in military skill, he restored to the state, through warfare, many provinces which Nero had lost.

250b

He was heedless of offences, he bore insults that had been said about him lightly.

251

In whose 2nd year Titus took and destroyed Jerusalem, where 1,100,000 Jews died by famine and the sword, besides those 100,000 sold publicly [into slavery].

In whose 2nd year Titus took and destroyed Jerusalem, where 1,100,000 Jews died by famine and the sword, besides those 100,000 also sold publicly [into slavery].

252

5277

Titus93 reigned 2 years

5276

Titus reigned 2 years

253

His great fluency stood out so much in both languages that he pleaded cases in Latin, [and] composed poems and tragedies in Greek.

254

On the other hand, [he was] so very warlike that, as a soldier under his father at the assault of Jerusalem, he pierced through twelve defenders with the blows of twelve arrows.

255

Moreover, he was of such goodness in his rule, that he would punish no one at all, but he would let off those convicted of a plot against him, and he would retain them in the same intimacy which he had previously.

He was of such goodness in his rule, that he would punish no one at all, but he would let off those convicted of a plot against him, and he would retain them in the same intimacy which he had previously.

256

In addition, the famous saying of his among them all was that the day was lost in which nothing good had been accomplished.

In addition, the famous saying of his among them all was that the day was lost in which nothing good had been accomplished.

257

5293

Domitian94 reigned 16 years

5292

Domitian reigned 16 years.

257a

With detestable pride, after [the example of] Nero, he ordered that he be called a god.

258

He was the second to persecute the Christians after Nero

259

Under whom the apostle John was banished to the island of Patmos

260

He killed and sent into exile many of the senators

He killed many of the senators, he killed Christians

261

and he ordered that all who were from the line of David be killed, so that no-one of the Jews would survive from the royal lineage.

and he ordered that all who were from the line of David be killed, so that no-one of the Jews would survive from the royal lineage.

259a

And under him the apostle John, having been banished to the island of Patmos, wrote the apocalypse.

262

5294

Nerva95 reigned 1 year.

5293

Nerva reigned 1 year.

262a

A man who was moderate in his rule and presented himself to all as equal and impartial.

263

The apostle John returns from exile to Ephesus and having been asked urgently by the bishops of Asia published the last Gospel

In whose times the apostle John comes from exile to Ephesus and having been asked urgently by the bishops of Asia published the last Gospel

264

5313

Trajan96 reigned 19 years.

5312

Trajan reigned 19 years.

264a

He, by the wonder of his virtue, restored the Roman Empire far and wide

265

He, after Asia and Babylon had been captured, approached all the way to the borders of India after [the example of] Alexander.

265a

He took Babylon and Arabia and approached all the way to the borders of India.

265b

Generous to all and calm, among whose different sayings the exceptional one is considered [to be] : when he was being asked, why there was too great a number of the public all around, answered that he would rather choose to deprive himself of being emperor than be such a private emperor.

(275)

In whose times Galen, the doctor born at Pergamon, was considered famous at Rome.

266

In whose times, Simon Cleopas, bishop of Jerusalem, is crucified

Also, Simon Cleopas, bishop of Jerusalem, is crucified at this time

267

and the apostle John dies.

and the apostle John dies.

268

5334

Hadrian97 reigned 21 years.

5333

Hadrian reigned 21 years.

268a

Envying the glories of Trajan, he gave back the provinces of the east to the Persians and set the boundary of Roman imperium at the Euphrates river.

269

He subjugated the rebellious Jews for the second time and rebuilt the city of Jerusalem and called it Helia from his own name.

Also, the same man subjugated the rebellious Jews and rebuilt the city of Jerusalem and called it Helia from his own name.

270

At the same time Aquila Ponticus, the second translator after the Septuagint, is born

At the same time Aquila Ponticus, the second translator after the Septuagint, is born

271

and Basilides98 is acknowledged as a heresiarch.

and Basilides is acknowledged as a heresiarch.

272

5356

Antoninus Pius99 reigned 22 years.

5355

Antoninus Pius reigned 22 years.

273

He received such a cognomen because of this, since throughout the Roman kingdom, with the records burned, he relaxed the debt of all men, and henceforward he was called the father of the fatherland.

273a

He received such a name on account of his mercy

273b

He first divided with equal power the imperium of the Roman city with Antoninus the Younger100.

274

With him ruling, the heresiarchs Valentinus and Marcion were brought forth101

275

and Galen, the doctor born at Pergamon, is considered famous at Rome.

276

5375

Antoninus102 the Younger reigned 18 years.

5374

Antoninus the Younger reigned 18 years.

276a

Having proceeded towards the Persians, he took Seleucia, a city of Assyria, with 400,000 thousand men, he triumphed over the Parthians and the Persians.

277

Montanus the founder of the [heresy of the] Cataphrygians and Titian, from whom the heresy of the Encratians [came], arose.103

When he was reigning, Montanus the founder of the [heresy of the] Cataphrygians and Titian, from whom the heresy of the Encratians [came], arose.

278

5388

Commodus104 reigned 13 years.

5387

Commodus reigned 13 years.

278a

He was given to much luxury.

279

Theodotion of Ephesus, the third translator, appeared

Under him Theodotion of Ephesus, the third translator, appeared

280

and Bishop Irenaeus of Lyons is considered outstanding in doctrine.

and Bishop Irenaeus of Lyons is considered outstanding in doctrine.

281

5389

Aelius Pertinax105 reigned 1 year.

5388

Aelius Pertinax reigned 1 year.

282

He, being begged by the Senate that he might make his wife Augusta and his son Caesar, refusing, he said, it was sufficient that he should rule since he himself ruled against his will.

He, being asked by the Senate that he might make his wife Augusta and his son Caesar, refusing, he said, it was sufficient that he should rule since even he himself, [who] had deserved it, was unwilling.

283

5407

Severus Pertinax106 reigned 18 years.

5406

Severus Pertinax reigned 18 years.

283a

He waged many wars successfully, he defeated the Parthians, he occupied Arabia, and he recovered Britain by fighting.

283b

He had knowledge of letters and philosophy

284

Symmachus, the fourth translator, is acknowledged.

In whose time Symmachus, the fourth translator, is acknowledged.

285

Bishop Narcissus of Jerusalem is celebrated for his many virtues.

Bishop Narcissus of Jerusalem is celebrated for his many virtues.

286

Tertullian the African is considered outstanding in the Church.

Tertullian the African is considered outstanding in the Church.

287

Origen is educated at Alexandria by his studies.

Origen is educated at Alexandria by his studies.

288

5414

Antoninus Caracalla107, son of Severus, reigned 7 years.

5413

Antoninus Caracalla, son of Severus, reigned 7 years.

288a

He was unbearable in his lust : he took his stepmother as his wife.

288b

He achieved nothing memorable.

289

In Jericho the fifth edition of the sacred scriptures was discovered, whose author is not apparent.

In whose times in Jericho the fifth edition of the sacred scriptures was discovered, whose author is not apparent.

290

5415

Macrinus108 reigned 1 year.

5414

Macrinus reigned 1 year.

290c

While reigning with his son, they achieved nothing memorable in the brevity of time, for after one year they were killed together by a military revolt.

291

5418

Aurelius Antoninus109 reigned 3 years.

5418

Aurelius Antoninus reigned 4 years110.

291a

While he was living most indecently he was killed in a military uprising.

292

The sixth edition was discovered at Nicopolis.

In whose times the sixth edition was discovered at Nicopolis.

293

Sabellius the heresiarch arises.111

Sabellius the heresiarch arises.

294

5431

Alexander112 reigned 13 years.

5431

Alexander reigned 13 years.

294a

He defeated the Persians gloriously

294b

He was favoured by the citizens.

295

Origen was famous at Alexandria

In whose times Origen was famous at Alexandria

296

and at Rome Ulpian the expert in law was outstanding

and at Rome Ulpian the expert in law was outstanding

297

5434

Maximinus113 reigned 3 years.

5434

Maximinus reigned 3 years.

298

He is the first man made emperor from the military body without a decree of the Senate

He is the first man made emperor from the military body without a decree of the Senate

299

and he persecutes the Christians.

and he persecutes the Christians.

300

5441

Gordian114 reigned 7 years.

5440

Gordian reigned 6 years115.

300a

He crushed the rebelling Parthians and Persians.

300b

Returning from the Persians the victor perished by the deceit of his own men.

301

Flavian, by the testimony of the holy spirit descending from above his head in the form of a dove, is ordained Bishop of Rome, although some assert more truly that this event concerned Zepherinus.

In whose times Flavian, by the testimony of the holy spirit descending from above his head in the form of a dove, is ordained Bishop of Rome, although some assert that this event concerned Zepherinus.

302

5448

Philip116 reigned 7 years.

5447

Philip reigned 7 years.

303

He believed in Christ first among the emperors117

He is the first of the emperors to be made Christian.

304

In whose first year the 1000th year of the city of the Romans is taught to have been completed.

In whose first year the 1000th year of the city of the Romans is completed.

305

5449

Decius118 reigned 1 year.

5448

Decius reigned 1 year.

305a

He suppressed a civil war which had been stirred up in Galatia

306

It is taught that Saint Antony the monk arose in Egypt.

It is said that Antony the monk, by whom the first monasteries were founded, arose in Egypt.

307

5451

Gallus and his son Volusianus119 ruled 2 years.

5450

Gallus with his son Volusianus reigned 2 years.

307a

They achieved nothing worthy of memory.

308

Coming to Rome, Novatus the priest of Cyprian the bishop founded the Novatian heresy.120

At Rome, Novatus the priest of Cyprian the bishop founded the Novatian heresy.

309

5466

Valerian reigned with Gallienus121 for 15 years.

5465

Valerian reigned with Gallienus for 15 years.

310

Cyprian, firstly a teacher of rhetoric, then a bishop, is crowned with martyrdom.

Cyprian, firstly a teacher of rhetoric, then a bishop, is crowned with martyrdom.

311

The Goths also ravage Greece, Macedonia, Asia and Pontus.

The Goths ravage Greece, Macedonia, Asia and Pontus.

312

Valerian, stirring up a persecution of Christians, was captured by the king of the Persians and grew old there in the disgrace of his life.

Valerian, stirring up a persecution of Christians, was captured by the king of the Persians and grew old there in the disgrace of his life.

313

5468

Claudius122 reigned 2 years.

5467

Claudius reigned 2 years.

314

He overpowered the Goths, who were devastating Illyricum and Macedonia.

He overpowered the Goths, who were devastating Illyricum and Macedonia.

315

Paul of Samosata is acknowledged as a heresiarch.123

Paul of Samosata is acknowledged as a heresiarch.

316

5473

Aurelian124 reigned 5 years.

5472

Aurelian reigned 5 years.

316a

By fighting he extended the Roman Empire almost to its former limits.

317

He, when making a persecution against the Christians, is caught by a lightning strike and dies without delay.

Who, when making a persecution against the Christians, is caught by a lightning strike and dies without delay.

318

5474

Tacitus125 reigned 1 year.

5473

Tacitus reigned 1 year.

319

In the brevity of whose life nothing worthy of note is recorded.

In the brevity of whose life nothing worthy of history is recorded.

320

5480

Probus126 reigned 6 years.

5479

Probus reigned 6 years.

320a

He was strenuous in military matters and distinguished in government. By fighting he restored Gaul, which had been occupied by the barbarians.

321

The heresy of the Manichees arose.127

In whose time the heresy of the Manichees arises.

322

5482

Carus with his sons Carinus and Numerianus128 reigned 2 years.

5481

Carus with his sons Carinus and Numerianus reigned 2 years.

323

Carus, after triumphing over the Persians, as victor erecting fortresses near to the Tigris, was cut down with a bolt of lightning.

Carus, after triumphing over the Persians and as victor erecting fortresses near to the Tigris, was cut down with a bolt of lightning.

324

5502

Diocletian and Maximian reigned 20 years.129

5501

Diocletian and Maximian reigned 20 years.

325

When he had burnt the divine books Diocletian persecuted Christians through the entire world.

When he had burnt the divine books Diocletian persecuted Christians through the entire world.

326

He first ordered jewels to be put onto clothes and shoes, while the principes were only clothed with purple on their backs.

He first ordered jewels to be put onto clothes and shoes, while the principes were only clothed with purple on their backs.

326a

Moreover, these emperors waged diverse wars. Having defeated the Persians, Mesopotamia was recovered.

326b

Who, after having left behind the summit of authority together, began to live as private citizens.

327

5504

Galerius reigned 2 years.130

5504

Galerius reigned 3 years131.

328

In the brevity of whose imperium nothing worthy of history took place.

In the brevity of whose imperium nothing worthy of history took place.

329

5534

Constantine132 reigned 30 years.

5535

Constantine reigned 31 years133.

329a

He prepared a war with the Persians. At the approach of which they trembled to such an extent, that they ran to meet him as supplicants promising to carry out his orders.

330

He, the first of the emperors made Christian134, gave permission to the Christians to congregate freely and to build basilicas in honour of Christ.

He, the first of the emperors made Christian, gave permission to the Christians to congregate freely and to build basilicas in honour of Christ.

331

In these times the Arian heresy arises and the council of Nicaea is convened by Constantine for the condemnation of Arius.135

In whose times the Arian heresy arises and the council of Nicaea is convened by Constantine for the condemnation of Arius.

332

The schism of the Donatists arises.136

And then the schism of the Donatists arises.

333

At the same time, the cross of the Lord was discovered at Jerusalem by Helena, the mother of Constantine.

The cross of the Lord is discovered at Jerusalem by Helena, the mother of Constantine.

334

Constantine, however, having been baptised by Eusebius of Nicomedia, is turned towards the Arian dogma at the end of his life. Alas, what pain : he started well and ended badly!

Constantine, however, having been baptised by Eusebius of Nicomedia, slipped into the Arian dogma at the end of his life. Alas, what pain : he started well and ended badly!

335

5558

Constantius and Constans137 reigned 34 years.

5559

Constantius and Constans reigned 34 years.

335a

Constans, terrible in the cruelty of his habits, endured many things from the Persians.

336

Constans, having been made an Arian, persecutes Catholics throughout the whole world.

Then being made an Arian, he persecutes Catholics throughout the whole world.

337

By whose favour Arius was supported while in Constantinople. He [Arius] was proceeding to the church in order to fight against us [the Catholics] concerning the faith, being diverted through the forum of Constantine to a necessary cause, his entrails were discharged suddenly at the same time as his life.

By whose favour Arius was supported while in Constantinople. He [Arius] was proceeding to the church in order to fight against us [the Catholics] concerning the faith, being diverted through the forum of Constantine to a necessary cause, his entrails were discharged suddenly at the same time as his life.

338

At the same time Athanasius and Hilary are celebrated for their doctrine and their confession of faith.

At the same time Athanasius and Hilary are celebrated for their doctrine and their confession of faith.

339

The heresy of the Anthropomorphists is born in Syria and Macedonianism in Constantinople.138

The heresy of the Anthropomorphists is born in Syria and Macedonianism in Constantinople.

340

Donatus, the writer of the arts of grammar and the teacher of Jerome, is considered outstanding at Rome.

Donatus, the writer of the arts of grammar, is considered outstanding at Rome.

341

Antony the monk dies.

Antony the monk dies.

342

The bones of the apostles Andrew and Luke are transferred to Constantinople.

The bones of the apostles Andrew and Luke are transferred to Constantinople.

343

5560

Julian139 reigned 2 years.

5561

Julian reigned 2 years.

344

Made emperor from [being] a clergyman, he is turned to the worship of idols and brought martyrdom to the Christians

Made emperor and a pagan from [being] a clergyman, he brought martyrdom to the Christians

344a

and he forbade Christians to teach or learn liberal literature.

345

Who, even while, in hatred of Christ, permitted the Jews to repair the Temple in Jerusalem and the Jews having been collected from all the provinces, they laid the foundations of the new temple, suddenly at night when there arose a moving of the ground, stones shaken off from the deepest of the foundations were scattered far and wide. Also, a fiery ball, flying out from the interior of the shrine of the temple, laid low many of them with fire. At which terror the remaining were scared and reluctantly confessed Christ, and so that they did not believe it had happened by accident, on the following night the sign of the cross appeared on the clothing of all.

Who, when, in hatred of Christ, permitted the Jews to repair the Temple in Jerusalem and when the Jews had been collected from all the provinces and laid the foundations of the new temple, suddenly at night when there arose a moving of the ground, stones from the deepest of the foundations were cast out far and wide. Also, a fiery ball, flying out from the interior of the shrine of the temple, laid low many of them with fire. At which terror the remaining Jews were scared and reluctantly confessed Christ, and so that they did not believe it had happened by accident, on the following night the sign of the cross appeared on the clothing of all.

345a

But, while proceeding against the Persians, Julian died, having been hit by a javelin as the attack was happening.

346

5561

Jovian140 reigned 1 year.

5562

Jovian reigned 1 year.

347

Who, while he got to know that he would be made emperor by the army and he, affirming himself a Christian, asserted that he was not able to govern the pagans. ‘And we’, said the whole army, ‘who through Julian rejected the name of Christ, wish to be Christians again with you.’ Having heard them, he accepted the sceptre of imperium.

He, while he got to know that he would be made emperor by the army and he, affirming himself a Christian, asserted that he was not able to govern the pagans. ‘And we’, said the whole army, ‘who through Julian rejected the name of Christ, wish to be Christians again with you.’ Having heard them, he accepted the sceptre of imperium

347a

and he returned having signed a peace with the Persians. He immediately by a law restored privileges that had been given to the Christians and he ordered the temples of the idols to be closed.

348

5575

Valentinian and Valens his brother reigned 14 years.141

5576

Valentinian and Valens his brother reigned 14 years.

349

The Goths at Strius142 were divided in two parts under Fritigern and Athalaric143. But Fritigern, defeating Athalaric with the help of Valens, as a result of his favour was made Arrian from Catholic, with all the people of the Goths

349a

The Goths are made heretics by the persuasion of Valens.

350

Then Ulfilas, their bishop, invented Gothic writing and translated both testaments into his own language.144

351

Also, Photinus and Eunomius and Apollinarius are acknowledged as heretics at that time.145

Also, Photinus and Eunomius and Apollinarius are acknowledged as heresiarchs at that time.

352

5581

Gratian146 ruled 6 years with his brother Valentinian.

5582

Gratian ruled 6 years with his brother Valentinian.

353

Ambrose Bishop of Milan became famous in the dogma of the Catholics.

Ambrose Bishop of Milan became famous in the dogma of the Catholics.

354

Priscillian founded the heresy of his name.147

Priscillian founded the heresy of his name in Spain.

355

Martin Bishop of Tours, the Gallic city, shone forth with the signs of many miracles.

Martin Bishop of Tours, the Gallic city, shone forth with the signs of many miracles.

356

5590

Valentinian reigned 9 years with Theodosius.148

5591

Valentinian reigned 9 years with Theodosius.

357

The synod of 150 holy fathers, in which all heresies are condemned, is gathered together at Constantinople.149

The synod of 150 holy fathers, in which all heresies are condemned, is gathered together by Theodosius at Constantinople.

358

Jerome, the priest in Bethlehem, is considered famous in the whole world.

Jerome, the priest in Bethlehem, is considered famous in the whole world.

359

Priscillian, being accused by Itacius, is cut down by the sword of the tyrant Maximus.150

Also, Priscillian, being accused by Itacius, is cut down by the sword of the tyrant Maximus in Gaul.

360

At the same time the head of John the Baptist is brought to Constantinople and buried at the seventh milestone of the city.

At the same time the head of John the Baptist is brought to Constantinople and buried at the seventh milestone of the city.

361

Also, at the same time the temples of the pagans are overturned throughout the whole world by order of Theodosius, for upto that point they had remained unsullied.

Also, at the same time the temples of the pagans are overturned throughout the whole world by order of Theodosius, for upto that point they had remained unsullied.

362

5593

Theodosius ruled 3 years with Arcadius and Honorius.151

5594

Theodosius ruled 3 years with his sons Arcadius and Honorius.

363

At the same time John the Anchorite became markedly famous

At the same time John the Anchorite is considered outstanding in the miracles of his virtues.

364

Who, being consulted by Theodosius about the tyrant Eugenius, even foretold the victory by the former.

Who, being consulted by Theodosius about the tyrant Eugenius, even foretold the victory by the former.

365

5606

Arcadius152 reigned 13 years with his brother Honorius.

5607

Arcadius reigned 13 years with his brother Honorius.

(369)

In whose times Bishop Augustine is considered outstanding in the knowledge of doctrine.

(370)

Also, the bishops John of Constantinople and Theophilus of Alexandria are considered illustrious.

366

In his times, Bishop Donatus of Epirus is considered outstanding for his virtues. Spitting in its mouth, he killed a mighty dragon, which a team of eight oxen was scarcely able to drag to the place of burning, lest its rottenness polluted the air.

Bishop Donatus of Epirus is considered outstanding for his virtues. Spitting in its mouth, he killed a mighty dragon, which a team of eight oxen was scarcely able to drag to the place of burning, lest its rottenness polluted the air.

367

At the same time the bodies of the holy prophets Habbacuc and Micha are revealed by divine revelation.

At the same time the bodies of the holy prophets Habbacuc and Micha are revealed by divine revelation.

368

The Goths assailed Italy, the Vandals and Alans Gaul.

Also, the Goths assailed Italy, the Vandals and Alans Gaul.

369

Also, Bishop Augustine is considered outstanding in the knowledge of doctrine.

370

Also, the bishops John of Constantinople and Theophilus of Alexandria are considered illustrious.

371

5621

Honorius153 ruled 15 years with Theodosius the Younger, the son of his brother.

5622

Honorius ruled 15 years with Theodosius, the son of his brother.

372

While they were ruling the Goths captured Rome.

With them as emperors the Goths captured Rome.

373

Also the Vandals occupied the Spains and the Sueves Gallaecia

373a

Also, the Vandals, Alans and Sueves occupied the Spains.

374

At this time Pelagius proclaims the doctrines of his error against the grace of Christ, for the damnation of which 214 bishops are called together in council at Carthage.154

At this time Pelagius proclaims the doctrines of his error against the grace of Christ, for the damnation of which 214 bishops are called together in council at Carthage.

375

At this time Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria, was considered eminent.

At which time Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria, was considered eminent.

376

5648

Theodosius the Younger155, the son of Arcadius, reigned 27 years.156

5649

Theodosius the Younger, the son of Arcadius, reigned 27 years.

377

The people of the Vandals crossed over from the Spains to Africa and there overturned the Catholic faith with Arian impiety.

The Vandals crossed over from Spain to Africa and there overturned the Catholic faith with Arian impiety.

378

At the same time Nestorius Bishop of Constantinople labours at his faithless error, against which the synod of Ephesus, having been convened, condemns his impious dogma.157

At the same time Nestorius Bishop of Constantinople labours at his faithless error, against which the synod of Ephesus, having been convened, condemns his impious dogma.

379

Also, at this time, the devil showed himself in the appearance of Moses to the Jews in Crete, he promised to lead them through the sea with dry feet to the promised land, when many had been killed the rest, who had been saved, were converted at once to the grace of Christ.

Also, at this time, the devil showed himself in the appearance of Moses to the Jews in Crete, he promised to lead them through the sea with dry feet to the promised land, when many had been killed the rest, who had been saved, were converted at once to the grace of Christ.

380

5654

Marcian158 reigned for 6 years.

5656

Marcian reigned for 7 years159.

381

At the start of whose [reign] the council of Chalcedon is conducted, where Eutyches together with Dioscorus Bishop of Alexandria are condemned.160

At the start of whose [reign] the council of Chalcedon is conducted, where Eutyches together with Dioscorus Bishop of Alexandria are condemned.

382

And also in the sixth year of his [being] emperor, Theoderic, King of the Goths161, along with a huge army, entered Spain.162

And also in the sixth year of whose imperial reign Theoderic, King of the Goths, along with a huge army, entered Spain.

383

5670

Leo the Elder163 reigned for 16 years with Leo the Younger.

5673

Leo the Elder reigned for 17 years with Leo the Younger164.

384

Alexandria and Egypt, languishing with the delusion of the heretical Dioscorus, bark with a canine madness, having been filled with a filthy spirit.165

Alexandria and Egypt, rejecting the synod of Chalcedon, bark with a canine madness, having been filled with a filthy spirit.

385

At the same time the heresy of the Acefali appeared, fighting against the council of Chalcedon. And for this reason they are called ‘Acefali’, that is ‘without a head’, because the one who first introduced that heresy is not discovered. By the plague of which heresy many people of the East languish still now.166

Then the heresy of the Acefali appeared for the first time, fighting against the council of Chalcedon. And therefore they are called ‘Acefali’, that is ‘without a head’, because the one who first introduced that heresy is not discovered. By the plague of which heresy many people of the East languish still now.

386

5687

Zeno167 reigned 17 years

5690

Zeno reigned 17 years

386a

The heresy of the Acefali is defended by him and the decrees of the synod of Chalcedon are rejected.

387

As Zeno sought to kill Leo Augustus, his son, his mother presented another with a similar appearance in place of him and secretly made Leo a cleric. And he bore the clerical office until the time of Justinian.

As Zeno longed to kill Leo Augustus, his son, his mother presented another with a similar appearance in place of him and secretly made Leo a cleric. And he bore the clerical office until the time of Justinian.

388

At the same time the body of Barnabus the apostle and the gospel of Matthew, written with his own stylus, having revealed themselves, were discovered.

At the same time the body of Barnabus the apostle and the gospel of Matthew, written with his own stylus, having revealed themselves, were discovered.

389

5714

Anastasius168 reigned 27 years.

5717

Anastasius reigned 27 years.

389a

Claiming the error of the Acefali, he condemns to exile the bishops who are supporters of the council of Chalcedon.

389b

Also, he seized and emended the Gospels as if they were composed by ignorant evangelists.

390

Thrasamund, King of the Vandals169, closed the Catholic churches and sent 120 bishops into exile in Sardinia.

At that time Thrasamund raged against the Catholics in Africa.

391

Flugentius also flourished in confession of faith and knowledge.

Bishop Fulgentius was famous in faith and knowledge.

392

At the same time at Carthage Olimpias, a certain Arian, when blaspheming against the holy trinity in the baths was visibly reduced to ashes by three fiery javelins hurled by an angel.

At the same time at Carthage Olimpias, a certain Arian, when blaspheming against the holy trinity in the baths was visibly reduced to ashes by three fiery javelins hurled by an angel.

393

Also, Barbas, a certain Arian bishop, while baptising against a certain rule of the faith, said : ‘Barbas baptises you in the name of the Father through the Son in the Holy Spirit’, the water, which had been brought for baptizing, immediately disappeared. Seeing which, he who was the baptizand at once departed to the Catholic church and received the baptism of Christ according to the similar custom of the faith.

Also, Barbas, a certain Arian bishop, while baptising against a certain rule of the faith, said : ‘Barbas baptises you in the name of the Father through the Son in the Holy Spirit’, the water of his font immediately disappeared. Seeing which, he who was the baptizand at once departed to the Catholic church and received the baptism of Christ according to the similar custom of the evangelical faith.

394

5722

Justin the Elder170 reigns 8 years.

5725

Justin the Elder reigns 8 years.

394a

A lover of the synod of Chalcedon, he rejects the heresy of the Acefali.

395

After Thrasamund, Hilderic171, born from the captive daughter of the Emperor Valentinian, receives the kingdom of the Vandals.

In whose time, after Thrasamund, Hilderic, born from the captive daughter of the Emperor Valentinian, receives the kingdom of the Vandals.

396

Who, having been bound by an oath from Thrasamund that he not look after the Catholics in his kingdom, before taking up the royal power ordered the bishops to return from exile and he instructed them to be restored to their churches.

Who, having been bound by an oath from Thrasamund that he not look after the Catholics in his kingdom, before taking up the royal power ordered the bishops to return from exile and he instructed them to be restored to their own churches.

397

5761

Justinian172 reigns 39 years.

5765

Justinian reigns 40 years173.

397a

He, admiring the heresy of the Acefali, compels all the bishops in his kingdom to condemn the three chapters of the council of Chalcedon.

397b

The Theodosian and Gaianan heresy arise in Alexandria.174

398

The patrician Belisarius175 remarkably triumphed over the Persians.

399

Who then, having been sent to Africa by Justinian, destroyed the people of the Vandals.

In Africa the Vandals were destroyed by Belisarius.

399a

The Roman soldier enters Spain due to Athanagild.

399b

Also, in Italy, Totila, King of the Ostrogoths, is overcome by Narses176, the Roman patrician.

400

At the same time the body of Saint Antony the monk, having been discovered by divine revelation, is taken to Alexandria and is interred in the church of Saint John the Baptist.

At the same time the body of Saint Antony the monk, having been discovered by divine revelation, is taken to Alexandria and is interred in the church of Saint John the Baptist.

401

5772

Justin the Younger177 reigned 11 years.

5776

Justin the Younger reigned 11 years.

401a

He destroyed those things which had been published against the synod of Chalcedon and he ordered that the profession of faith of the 150 fathers would be celebrated by the people at the time of the offering.

401b

Then the Armenians first take up Christianity.

401c

The Lombards extinguish the Gepids.

401d

At the same time Martin, Bishop of Dumium, preaches in Gallaecia in the doctrine of the faith.

402

Afterwards, the patrician Narses, under Justinian Augustus, overcame Totila, King of the Goths in Italy. Very frightened by the threats of Sofia Augusta178, wife of Justin, he invited the Lombards from Pannonia and introduced them into Italy.

403

At this time Leovigild, King of the Goths179, by conquering certain rebellious regions of Spain for himself, rendered [them] into the power of his kingdom.

404

5779

Tiberius180 reigned 7 years.

5782

Tiberius reigned 7 years.

404a

After the Romans had been driven away, the Lombards came into Italy.

405

The Goths, having been divided into two by Hermenegild181, son of King Leovigild, are devastated by mutual slaughter.

The Goths, having been divided into two by Hermenegild182, son of King Leovigild, are devastated by mutual slaughter.

406

5800

Maurice183 reigned for 21 years.

5803

Maurice reigned for 21 years.

407

The Sueves, having been prevailed over by the Goths, are made subject by King Leovigild.

The Sueves, having been prevailed over by the Goths, are made subject by King Leovigild of the Goths.

408

Also, at the same time the Goths, being leaned on by Reccared, the princeps,184 are turned back to the Catholic faith.

Also, at the same time the Goths, being encouraged by Reccared, the most religious princeps, are converted to the Catholic faith.

408a

At this time bishop Leander is considered outstanding in Spain for his knowledge and faith.

409

The Avars, fighting against the Romans, are driven out more with gold than with the sword.

410

5808

Phocas185 reigned 8 years.

5811

Phocas reigned 8 years.

411

He, having been made emperor by a military revolt, killed Maurice Augustus and many of the nobles.

He, having been made emperor by a military revolt, killed Maurice Augustus and many of the nobles.

412

In his time the Greens and Blues made civil war throughout the East and Egypt and exhausted each other by mutual slaughter.186

The Greens and Blues made civil war throughout the East and Egypt.

413

Also, most serious Persian wars were stirred up against the republic. By which, when the Romans had been strongly subdued, they lost many provinces and Jerusalem itself.

Also, most serious Persian wars are raised against the Romans. By which, when the Romans had been strongly subdued, they lost certain Eastern parts.

414

5813

Thereafter Heraclius187 completes the fifth year of his rule.188

414a

5827

Heraclius completes the sixteenth year of his imperium. At the start of whose [reign] the Slavs took Greece from the Romans, the Persians Syria and Egypt and many provinces.189

415

In Spain Sisebut, the most glorious princeps of the Goths, made many cities of the Roman military subject to himself by fighting.

Also, in Spain Sisebut, king of the Goths190, took many of the cities of the same Roman military

416

and he converted the Jews who were the subjects of his kingdom to Christianity.

and he converted the Jews who were the subjects of his kingdom to Christianity.

416b

After which Swinthila, the most religious princeps191, began a war with the remaining Roman cities and with a swift victory was the first to obtain the monarchia of Spain.

417

So then there have been, from the Creation of the world up to the present era, that is, the fifth year of the emperor Heraclius and the fourth of the most religious princeps Sisebut, 5813 years.

417a

So then there have been, from the Creation of the world up to the present era192 664 [years], that is in the sixteenth year of the imperium of Heraclius and the fifth [year] of the most religious princeps Swinthila, 5827 years.

418

The remaining time of the world is not ascertainable by human investigation. For Lord Jesus Christ forestalled every question concerning this matter when he said : ‘it is not for you to know the times or the moments which the Father has placed in accordance with his own authority’; and elsewhere : ‘but concerning the day’, he said, ‘and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, except the Father’. Therefore everyone should think about his passing over, as it says in holy scripture : ‘in all your works be mindful of your most recent, and in eternity you will do no wrong’. For when each person departs from the world, then that is the end of the world for him.

The remaining time of the world is not ascertainable by human investigation. For Lord Jesus forestalled every question concerning this matter when he said : ‘it is not for you to know the times or the moments which the Father has placed in accordance with his own authority’; and elsewhere : ‘but concerning the day’, he said, ‘and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, except the Father’. Therefore everyone should think about his passing over, as it says in holy scripture : ‘in all your works be mindful of your most recent, and in eternity you will do no wrong’. For when each person departs from the world, then that is the end of the world for him.

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Note de fin

1  Julius Africanus, Christian historian of the early third century AD.

2  That is, the Christians.

3  Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor (161-180 AD).

4  Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea and Christian chronicler (c. 260-340 AD).

5  Jerome, Christian chronicler (345-419 AD).

6  The Chronicle of Eusebius is actually composed of two separate texts : the chronography, giving a history of a number of different peoples, and the canons, a compilation of tables of dates and events, which probably formed the raw material from which the chronography was constructed. For further explanation see Burgess (2002).

7  Victor, Bishop of Tunnuna and Christian chronicler (d. c. 570 AD).

8  Justin II, Roman Emperor (565-578 AD).

9  Heraclius, Roman Emperor (610-641 AD).

10  Sisebut, King of the Visigoths (612-621 AD).

11  Swinthila, King of the Visigoths (621-631 AD).

12  Isidore was the first writer to insert the six ages of the world into a chronicle, Vázquez de Parga (1961).

13  Jospehus, Jewish Antiquities,1.2.3.

14  Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 1.3.5.

15  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, V.i.1; XV.ii.27.

16  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, IX.ii.76.

17  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, V.i.1.

18  Othniel, Judge of Israel. From this point forward Isidore has access to a more straightforward chronology based on the Book of Judges (via Eusebius-Jerome) and therefore builds his chronicle on a succession of rulers. Othniel is the first of the Judges of Israel around whose reigns Isidore constructs his chronicle until the era of the Kings (chapter 104). The exact dates of the judges of Israel are so insecure that we have not included them, although they are around the eleventh and twelve centuries BC. On the problems of biblical chronology see Finegan (1964).

19  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, I.iii.6.

20  Ehud, Judge of Israel.

21  Deborah, Judge of Israel.

22  Gideon, Judge of Israel.

23  Abimelech, Judge of Israel.

24  Tola, Judge of Isreal.

25  Jair, Judge of Israel.

26  Jephthah, Judge of Israel.

27  Ibzan, Judge of Israel.

28  Abdon, Judge of Israel.

29  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, I.iv.1.

30  Samson, Judge of Israel.

31  Eli, Judge of Israel.

32  Samuel, last of the Judges of Israel. Saul, King of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah (c. 1020-1000). This chapter marks the transition from biblical judges to kings.

33  David, King of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah (c. 1010-965).

34  Cf. chapter 134a of the second redaction, where Isidore again refers to the foundation of Carthage.

35  Solomon, King of the United Kingdom of Isreal and Judah (c. 967-927).

36  Rehoboam, King of Judah (926-910). From this point onwards Isidore constructs his chronicle on the Kings of Judah until the Persian Kings take over at chapter 170.

37  Abijam, King of Judah (910-908).

38  Asa, King of Judah (908-868).

39  Jehoshapat, King of Judah (868-847).

40  Jehoram, King of Judah (847-845).

41  Ahaziah, King of Judah (845),

42  Athaliah, Queen of Judah (845-840).

43  Jehoash, King of Judah (840-801).

44  Amaziah, King of Judah (801-773).

45  Cf. chapter 109 (both redactions), where Isidore refers with more certainty to the foundation of Carthage.

46  Uzziah, King of Judah (787-736).

47  Cf. chapter 87 (both redactions), where Isidore refers to Hercules instituting the Olympics themselves.

48  Jotham, King of Judah (756-741).

49  Ahaz, King of Judah (741-725).

50  Hezekiah, King of Judah (725-697).

51  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, IX.iv.8.

52  Manasseh, King of Judah (696-642).

53  Amon, King of Judah (641-640).

54  Josiah, King of Judah (639-609).

55  Jehoiakim, King of Judah (608-598).

56  Zedekiah, King of Judah (597-587).

57  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, V.i.2.

58  The seventy year of the Jewish captivity (chapter 167) explain the gap in time between Zedekiah and Darius.

59  Darius I the Great, King of Persia (521-486). From this point until Alexander the Great (chapter 195) Isidore constructs his chronicle around the reigns of the Persian Kings.

60  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, IX.iii.6.

61  Xerxes I, King of Persia (486-465).

62  Artaxerxes I Longimanus, King of Persia (465-424).

63  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, I.xlii.2; VI.i.3.

64  Darius II Nothus, King of Persia (424-405).

65  Artaxerxes II Mnemon, King of Persia (405-359).

66  Artaxerxes III Ochus, King of Persia (359-338).

67  Artaxerxes IV Arses, King of Persia (338-336).

68  Darius III, King of Persia (336-331).

69  Alexander the Great, King of Macedon (336-323). The death of Alexander in 323 began the Hellenistic age and from this point until Julius Caesar (chapter 233) Isidore constructs his chronicle around the reigns of the Ptolemies. The numbering of the Ptolemies is a modern convention; the Greeks knew them by their nicknames. Both names are given here.

70  Ptolemy I Soter, King of Egypt (323-283).

71  Ptolemy II Philedelphus, King of Egypt (283-246).

72  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VI.iv.1.

73  Ptolemy III Evergetes, King of Egypt (246-221).

74  Ptolemy IV Philopator, King of Egypt (221-204).

75  Ptolemy V Epiphanes, King of Egypt (204-180).

76  Ptolemy VI Philometor, King of Egypt (180-145).

77  Ptolemy VIII Evergetes II, King of Egypt (145-116)

78  Ptolemy IX Soter II, King of Egypt (first and second of three reigns, 116-110 and 109-107).

79  Ptolemy X Alexander, King of Egypt (110-109 and 107-88).

80  Ptolemy IX Soter II, King of Egypt (third of three reigns, 88-81).

81  Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes), King of Egypt (80-51).

82  Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt (51-30).

83  Caesar was effectively sole ruler after the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 until his assassination in 44.

84  From this point onwards Isidore constructs his chronicle around the reigns of the Roman Emperors.

85  Augustus, Roman Emperor (31BC-AD14).

86  Tiberius, Roman Emperor (14-37).

87  Gaius, Roman Emperor (37-41).

88  Claudius, Roman Emperor (41-54).

89  Simon Magus was often regarded by early Christians as the first heretic.

90  Nero, Roman Emperor (54-68). Isidore does not record the three short reigns between Nero and Vespasian : Galba, Otho and Vitellius.

91  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from XIIII to XIII years. His source for this, Eusebius-Jerome, Chron. 2070, which calculates the reign as thirteen years seven months and twenty-eight days. Isidore appears to have rounded up in the first case and down in the second.

92  Vespasian, Roman Emperor (69-79).

93  Titus, Roman Emperor (79-81).

94  Domitian, Roman Emperor (81-96).

95  Nerva, Roman Emperor (96-98).

96  Trajan, Roman Emperor (98-117).

97  Hadrian, Roman Emperor (117-138).

98  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.4.

99  Antoninus Pius, Roman Emperor (138-161).

100  This is Marcus Aurelius.

101  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.11 ; VIII.v.21.

102  Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor (161-180).

103  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.27; VIII.v.25.

104  Commodus, Roman Emperor (176-192, co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius 176-180).

105  Pertinax, Roman Emperor (193).

106  Septimius Severus, Roman Emperor (193-211).

107  Caracalla, Roman Emperor (198-217, co-emperor with Septimius Severus 198-211).

108  Macrinus, Roman Emperor (217-218).

109  Heliogabalus, Roman Emperor (218-222).

110  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from III to IIII years. His source Eusebius-Jerome, Chron. 2234, calculates the reign as four years, suggesting that Isidore returned to his source in the second redaction.

111  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.42.

112  Alexander Severus, Roman Emperor (222-235).

113  Maximinus, Roman Emperor (235-238).

114  Gordian III, Roman Emperor (238-244).

115  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from VII to VI years. His source Eusebius-Jerome, Chron. 2254, calculates the reign as six years, suggesting that Isidore returned to his source in the second redaction.

116  Philip, Roman Emperor (244-249).

117  At chapter 330 (both redactions) Isidore states that Constantine was the first emperor to be made Christian.

118  Decius, Roman Emperor (249-251).

119  Trebonianus Gallus, Roman Emperor (251-253); Volusianus, Roman Emperor (251-253).

120  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.34.

121  Valerian, Roman Emperor (253-260); Galienus, Roman Emperor (253-268).

122  Claudius II, Roman Emperor (268-270).

123  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.29.

124  Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270-275).

125  Tacitus, Roman Emperor (275-276).

126  Probus, Roman Emperor (276-282).

127  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.31.

128  Carus, Roman Emperor (282-283); Carinus, Roman Emperor (283-285); Numerianus (283-284).

129  Diocletian, Roman Emperor (284-305); Maximian, Roman Emperor (286-305 and 307-308).

130  Galerius, Roman Emperor (305-311).

131  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from II to III years, perhaps to even out his chronology.

132  Constantine I, Roman Emperor (306-337).

133  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from XXX to XXXI years. His source Eusebius-Jerome, Chron. 2322, calculates the reign as thirty years and ten months, suggesting that Isidore revisited his source in the second redaction.

134  Cf. chapter 303, where Isidore states that the Emperor Philip was the first to believe in Christ.

135  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.43.

136  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.51.

137  Constantius II, Roman Emperor (337-361); Constans, Roman Emperor (337-350).

138  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.32; VIII.v.44.

139  Julian, Roman Emperor (361-363).

140  Jovian, Roman Emperor (363-364).

141  Valentinian I, Western Roman Emperor (364-375); Valens, Eastern Roman Emperor (364-378).

142  Istria : a zone inland of the northern coast of the Adriatic.

143  Athanaric, Gothic leader (d. 381).

144  Cf. Isidore, History of the Goths, 8.

145  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.37; VIII.v.39; VIII.v.45.

146  Gratian, Western Roman Emperor (367-382).

147  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.54.

148  Valentinian II, Western Roman Emperor (375-392); Theodosius I, Eastern Roman Emperor (379-392).

149  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VI.xvi.7.

150  Magnus Maximus, usurper (d. 388); for more on this episode, see Chadwick (1976).

151  From 392 to 395 Theodosius I ruled with his sons, Honorius and Arcadius.

152  Arcadius, Eastern Roman Emperor (395-408).

153  Honorius, Western Roman Emperor (395-423).

154  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.63.

155  Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor (408-450).

156  After the final division of the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves, Isidore dates solely according to the eastern emperors. Significantly, this follows the capture of Rome by the Visigoths in chapter 372.

157  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VIII.v.64.

158  Marcian, Roman Emperor (450-457).

159  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from VI to VII years. His source Victor of Tunnuna, Chron. 8, calculates the reign as five years and six months, perhaps suggesting that he turned away from his source in the second redaction.

160  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VI. Xvi.9; VIII.v.67.

161  Theoderic II, King of the Visigoths (453-466).

162  Furtado (2002), (2006), has demonstrated how, in the History of the Goths, Isidore modified his sources in order to emphasise that the Visigoths had entered Spain with the permission of the Roman Empire and had thereafter settled on imperial soil under the auspices of legitimate agreements. In the Chronicle it seems he was more concerned to emphasise Visigothic military power and independence from Rome.

163  Leo I, Roman Emperor (457-474).

164  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from xVI to XVII years. His source Victor of Tunnuna, Chron. 18, calculates the reign as sixteen years, again suggesting that he turned away from his source in the second redaction.

165  Cf. Isidore, Etymologies, VI.xvi.9.

166  Cf. Isidore’s Etymologies, VIII.v.66.

167  Zeno, Roman Emperor (474-491).

168  Anastasius I, Roman Emperor (491-518).

169  Thrasamund, King of the Vandals (496-523).

170  Justin I, Roman Emperor (518-527).

171  Hilderic, King of the Vandals (523-530).

172  Justinian I, Roman Emperor (527-565).

173  In the second redaction Isidore changes the reign length from XXXVIIII to XL years. His source Victor of Tunnuna, Chron. 111, calculates the reign as thirty years and seven months, perhaps suggesting that he rounded down in the first and up in the second.

174  Isidore, Etymologies,VIII.v. 67.

175  Belisarius, Roman general : Belisarius 1, Martindale, ed. (1992), 3A, p. 181-224.

176  Narses, Roman general : Narses 1, Martindale, ed. (1992), 3B, p. 913-928.

177  Justin II, Roman Emperor (565-578).

178  On Sofia (565-601+), wife of Justin II, see Garland (1999), p. 40-57.

179  Leovigild, King of the Visigoths (569-586).

180  Tiberius II, Roman Emperor (578-582).

181  Hermenegild, Visigothic usurper (d. 585).

182  Hermenegild, Visigothic usurper (d. 585).

183  Maurice, Roman Emperor (581-602).

184  Reccared, King of the Visigoths (586-601).

185  Phocas, Roman Emperor (602-610).

186  This is a reference to civil strife between different circus factions in the east.

187  Heraclius, Roman Emperor (610-641).

188  This chapter, along with chapter 417, establishes that the first redactions was written in the year 615/616 AD.

189  This chapter, along with chapter 417a, establishes the dating of the second redaction to the year 626 AD.

190  Sisebut, King of the Visigoths (612-621).

191  Swinthila, King of the Visigoths (621-631). Isidore ignores the brief reign of Reccared II (621), Sisebut’s son.

192  At this point Isidore is using a dating system, known as the Spanish era system, in use in Spain both before and after the Visigothic period. In order to convert Spanish era dates into anno domini dates it is necessary to subtract 38 years. Hence, Isidore’s era date of 664 therefore corresponds to 626 AD. Although some scholars (e.g. VAZQUEZ DE PARGA, 1961) have argued that the Isidore’s Chronicle played a central role in popularising this ‘national’ dating system, this is not sustained by the evidence of the text itself. Era dating only appears on one occasion, and then only in the second redaction of the work. Isidore’s History of the Goths proved a better vehicle for the Spanish era, which was adopted consistently in both redactions. In addition, as the system was used in Spain both before and after Isidore, he cannot be considered as seminal in its introduction into Iberia (Handley, 2003 : 135-138). See NEUGEBAUER, 1981 for more on aera dating.

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Sam KOON et Jamie WOOD, « The Chronica Maiora of Isidore of Seville », e-Spania [En ligne], 6 | décembre 2008, mis en ligne le 13 décembre 2008, consulté le 28 juillet 2016. URL : http://e-spania.revues.org/15552 ; DOI : 10.4000/e-spania.15552

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Sam KOON

University of Manchester

Jamie WOOD

University of Sheffield

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